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لترجمة المحتوى إلى اللغة العربية، استخدموا الرابط "اختر اللغة" في أعلى الصفحة.

 

Decisions on economic priorities before, during and after conflict, are often linked to political decision making structures, but not always. Key economic decisions on physical rebuilding priorities, and on creating or recreating economic activity can too easily end up being taken by patriarchal power structures that existed pre-conflict which do not help sustain progress towards transitional justice. We are looking for ideas on how to change pre-conflict structures, how to ensure women are at the forefront of key economic decisions and to highlight what has worked on the ground in conflict and post-conflict situations.

Please answer the following questions:

  1. How do women prioritise for economic reconstruction?
  2. What are the differences between women’s perspectives and existing state and international models that are often instituted post-conflict? 
  3. What good examples are there that have led to increased participation of women in the economy and in economic decision making, including eg rebuilding priorities? What worked? What didn’t work? 
  4. How can we ensure that rapid economic recovery increases women’s economic opportunities? What specific measures have worked? What obstacles have you met?
  5. What was the impact? what happened that was different? 
  6. Was there any outside support that was particularly important? Are there lessons to learn from the timing of that support? What support might have helped but wasn’t forthcoming? 
  7. How were men engaged? What worked?
  8. Can new technologies help women’s empowerment in recovery situations? If so, how? Can they help ensure inclusion?
  9. How can we ensure that the needs and views of the most marginalized are included? What good examples are there of including disabled women, LGBTQI communities?
  10. What role can data play in improving women’s participation in the economy and in economic decision making?

Comments (155)

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

I would like to thank everyone who took out time to participate in  this last week of consultation.  Your depth of knowledge, field experiences, insights, perspectives, doable recommendations contributed to the richness of the conversation.  The inputs given by all of you from very diverse countries and region like Maldives, Syria, Mauritius, Nigeria, China, USA, Yemen, Indian Kashmir, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Niger, Sri Lanka, Lebanon, Indonesia, El Salvador are informative, innovative and enlightening.

Here is the summary of some of the key ideas and points:

  • There have been many commonalities among the various interventions that ask for:
    • The exploitation of women in the name of customs and traditions need to be seriously addressed as a global problem for gender equality in all spectrum of society.
    • National Legal frameworks that protect women, give them the right to inheritance, property and land and assist them in participation in economic decision making should be developed and fully implemented by nearly all the countries in the world.
  • In recovery programs women should be included at all stages of decision making: Planning, design, implementation, critical assessment an devaluation of the programs. Women’s voices need to be included especially in the budget discussions where budgets are decided, how the resources will be distributed.
  • To ensure that the needs and views of the most marginalized are included in recovery program women community leaders and local women representatives should be included in all decision making processes as they are rooted in intimate and detailed knowledge of their contexts.
  •  A thorough gender analysis and a sound do no harm analysis should be conducted before identifying the right strategies for post conflict economic recovery program. An intersectional feminist approach is badly needed, therefore, to develop program that are based on accurate understandings of how gender and other inequalities affect women’s and girls’ daily lives and their status in the community.
  • For the gender-responsive localization of economic recovery, what is also critical is transforming the institutions at national and local level to include more women in various positions in the departments and units that are concerned with crisis response.
  • The insecurity and uncertainty that define post conflict situation are precisely the conditions in which financial inclusion is most important. Formal financial institutions should facilitate women to easily access finances. This suggests that policymakers and private sector leaders need to consider ways to expanding women financial inclusion.
  • In economic recovery program combining cash and easy loans with training in business skills and provision of mentor to guide women in establishing small business will not only increase women’s economic opportunities but will give them confidence to have a say in decision making at home and community etc.
  • Technology can be used to help organize collective action, to document abuses at work, and provide eyewitness accounts of conditions and abuses inside workplaces. Technology can also be used to promote women entrepreneur but not every woman has access to technology.
  • The role of women’s collective action and self-help groups, including group savings and loan groups, in advancing financial inclusion and women’s economic empowerment could also be further explored. These self help groups and other play an important role in post conflict situations, in mobilizing resources and re-creating a sense of community, also including marginalized social groups.
  • National (big) data should be gender sensitive. Both men and women mattered. If women's business right, business ownership, and property right cannot be reflected in big data, something is wrong. Women mattered in the whole process from fighting the covid-19 to economic recovery. If there is any gender inequality issue showed in big data, the government NGOS and the communities should be able to fix these problems.
  • As Martha Benavides commented,  just not going back to normal, exactly, but to a refurbish normal is required to address the structural, cultural, ideological, institutional, attitudinal issues that obstructs women economic empowerment.  .. 
  • A UNSCR resolution on women’s economic rights, leadership and participation is proposed which is of great importance to address the underlying challenge to the full implementation of the WPS agenda.
  • Finally UN and other donors should strengthen civil society as it’s a pillar for prevention, response and recovery.

Hope that UN and other international entities will develop, implement and fund programs that can transform structures, processes, institutions and values thus paving  the way for women socio-political and economic empowerment and their leadership in all spheres of society.

Dasa Silovic Moderator

Welcome to this important discussion as we prepare to review (and celebrate) twenty years since the historic UN SC 1325 resolution. This segment of the discussion deals with the economic empowerment of women in post-crisis contexts. Some of your thoughts, comments, lessons learnt and examples may go beyond the post-conflict and peacebuilding situations. After the COVID-19 crisis there may be some similarities as the world tries to get back on its economic feet. So this discussion is about the empowerment of women and their equal participation in post crisis recovery on the path to stability, sustainability, peacebuilding and development. The discussion should also look back and relfect on progress made since the Beijing Conference on these issues, or lack thereoff. Was it slow, was it substantive, was it sustainable? Are we going two steps forward and one step backward...

I look forward to our interaction and exchange of views, ideas, recommendations and forward looking thinking.

Your moderator for this segment, Dasa Silovic, Chair Central and European Network for Gender Issues, President, The European Partners for the Environment

laila yemen

مرحبا وناسف على عدم المشاركة سابقا نظرا لظروف صحية وسعيدة جدا بالمشاركة معكم بالنسبة ( لليمن ) يعتبر الجانب الاقتصادي هو جزء لا يتجزأ من العملية السياسية وبناء السلام فمن المعروف انه متى ما كانت المراة موجودة في صياغة اتفاقيات السلام ستكون موجودة في صياغة وتنفيذ الخطط في المراحل التي تليها فمن اهم أسباب تدهور الوضع الأمني في اليمن منذ العام 2011 هو المطالبة بتحسين مشاركة الشباب والنساء في سوق العمل ومراكز صنع القرار ومؤسسات الدولة حيث تمكنت عدد بسيط منهن سابقا من الوصول لمناصب جيدة في الدولة قبل 2011 ونجاح عدد اقل كسيدات اعمال, وقد أدت 2011 في احداث انطلاقة كبيرة للدور النسوي في اليمن حيث ظهرت العديد من القيادات النسوية الشابة و البارزة التي أقدمت على اتخاذ خطوات جريئة وقوية لتغيير الصورة النمطية عن دور المرأة داخل المجتمع وبالتالي كسر حواجز الخوف لدى النساء وأيضا و التغلب على العادات والتقاليد التي كانت تعمل على تضييق دور النساء, فاصبحن مؤثرات على العديد من الأصعدة ومنها اقتصاديا وسياسيا واجتماعيا فوصلن الى رئاسة الاحزاب ونيل جائزة نوبل وفض النزاعات المسلحة وحل قضايا الاختطافات مما جعلهن مثلا ناجحا للنساء للاقتداء بهن وأيضا تمكن من نيل ثقة المجتمع الذي كان يرى ان اقصى ما يمكن للمرأة ان تقوم به من اعمال هو ممرضة او استاذة او مربية للأطفال.

John Ede

Greetings.

In most developing countries of not all,credible data is lacking as most state actors lack the capacity to have a strong data or statistics office without political interferences.in cases where data is available before, during and after conflict to ascertain the number of women involved in post conflicts, it will be helpful to improve women participation. And mobile phone technology with its spread and coverage has put more power in the hands of women in cut-out rural places especially in crisis situations where services are quickly restored after any interruptions.

Mobile phone service can be used I collect credible data, build local capacity, provide useful information to the locals, point to social service locations, and also feedback on local peace building actions.

Traditional and religious leaders at local level should open up consultations with women and women's groups ensuring that what women want and needs are included in the key decision making. Economic recovery without women is no recovery since the vulnerability level will be high.

dr faiza

تحية طيبة 

اتفق معك ان  دول العالم الثالث أو البلدان النامية  تفتقر إلى الاحصئيات العلمية 

كما وأنها لا تستفيد من نتائج  الدراسات الاكاديمية الكثيرة خاصة الماجستير والدكتوراه ولا الاحصائيات التي تتضمنها تلك الدراسات 

علاوة على غياب خطط استراتيجية وفي حال وجودها فهي شكلية وغير ملتزم بتنفيذها لغياب الخطط  التشغيلية والمتابعة والرقابة 

وتفشي الفساد على مختلف الصعد اثر سلبا على حقوق النساء ومساهمهتن في الاقتصاد

وفي حال المساهمة لا تغيب الاحصائيات الدقيقة عن نشاطهن غير المقنن الذي لا يخدم الا صاحبة المشروع دون المجتمع

   

Dasa Silovic Moderator

Data disaggregation by gender, vulnerable groups and others is critical for policy making post-conflict. Unfortunately, this is not always the priority and as gender advocates we have to forage for data @John Ede. Capacity building of local authorities to gather data and the establishment of strong government facilities for their processing and policy making is key. This is an area where UNDP and the UN system in general have an important role to play.

The post-conflict recovery process offers an opportunity to start afresh – to design governance, economic solutions to the benefit of gender equality and women’s empowerment, whether in the use of new technology (and training to maximise its potential) or for providing a conducive environment for their contribution to the economic recovery. Technology can work best as an integral part and strategic instrument of governance and economic development. The goal has to be women's empowerment within a socially just society and equitable distribution of opportunities (including IT) and assets. Early pilot projects have linked digital inclusion to notable improvements in women’s financial inclusion outcomes, particularly with regard to mobile banking.

There are many examples e.g. Somalia, where women have been called to the peacemaking and reconciliation table by community elders and religious leaders. Unfortunately, in the peacebuilding and reconstruction process their contribution to peace is often forgotten as they assume their traditional roles in patriarchal societies. Equally the UN promoted the participation of women in Syrian peace talks.Re: 

https://www.cfr.org/interactive/womens-participation-in-peace-processes/

 

laila yemen

  بالفعل ان الحصول على المعلومات والبيانات الصحيحة مهم جدا ولكن للاسف في دول الصراع كما هو الحال في اليمن تضل البيانات غير دقيقة كون كل طرف يحاول ان يظهر بان وضع النساء في مناطق سيطرتهم ممتاز جدا ولذلك فاننا لا نعتمد بشك كبير على احصائياتهم وانما نظيف اليها الدراسات الميداينة التي نقوم بها كمنظمات مجتمع مدني , وفيما يتعلق بمحادثات السلام اليمنية فللاسف بان دور النساء  مغيب عنها تماما من كل الاطراف مع وجود امراة واحدة فقط في وفد الشرعية ولا يزال وجودنا كنساء فيها ضعيف جدا ولا يحضى بالدعم الدولي والاممي المناسب للنساء الفاعلات والمؤثرات على الارض وانما يستمر اقصاءهن مما ادى الى ارتفاع نسبة الانتهاكات تجاههن بل وتهديدهن في حال مطالبتهم بالسلام والتي وصلت الى مستوى الاعتقالات وايضا منع المنظمات المحلية والدولية من اقامة مشاريع او حتى الحديث عن النوع الاجتماعي والسلام والتمكين للنساء , وبل والتهجم  حتى على طالبات المدارس في المناطق الشمالية التي يسيطر عليها جماعة انصار الله الحوثية 

Amira Albaldawi

فيما يخص الدور الذي يمكن ان تلعبه البيانات في تحسين مشاركة المرأة في الأقتصاد وفي صناعة القرار الأقتصادي .. صحيح عدم توفر البيانات المصنفة حسب الجنس والعمر وحتى التعليم يجعل من الصعب معرفة الفجوة في المشاركة الأقتصادية .. ونحاول في العراق وبرغم الظروف الصعبة التي مررنا بها ان نضغط ونتعاون مع الجهات الحكومية لتعميم منظور النوع الأجتماعي بتبني البيانات المصنفة في كافة المؤسسات .. ولكن لاننكر العقبات التي يمكن ان تواجه تغيير منظومة عمل مؤسساتي راسخ منذ مئات السنين ... اما فيما يخص التكنلوجيا  ودورها في مساعدة  تمكين المرأة هناك عقبة كبيرة لمعظم الدول التي تعرضت لفترات طويلة من النزاع هو ان معظم النساء المتأثرات من النزاع يكن بحاجة الى دفعات مالية عاجلة من اجل استمرار الحياةوهذا في اغلب الأحيان يعيق الذهاب الى خيار التعلم وتطوير القدرات واستخدام التكنلوجيا الحديثة في الأنتاج والتسويقوكافة مناحي العمل .. التكنلوجيا تحتاج الى أوضاع مستقرة والى رعاية لبناء القدرات في ظروف خالية من الخوف

  

Dasa Silovic Moderator

It might be useful to go back and look at gender related statistics in Iraq, especially in education and health in the 1990s...

Most capacity development interventions in post-conflict and development environments have stressed the issue of disaggregated data collection. Last but not least Nilufer Cagatay of UNDP, and later UNW, raised this issue since the beginning of the 21st century as did the UN system (DAW, OSAGI, UNIFEM., UNDP +++) working on gender equality and mainstreaming. Obviously, something went wrong in the delivery, with all due respect to changing country environments...But on the bright side we have a great opportunity to rectify the situation with the SDGs. Might be useful to revisit the statistics on the MDGs (e.g. the Arab states MDG report) and make some meaningful analysis/comparisons.

Financial transfers @Amina are crucial post-conflict/crisis. We are seeing this happening now with stimulus packages to address the COVID-19 pandemic. But we have to be vigilant and smart regarding their distribution so that they do reach the most needy and vulnerable. Transparency is key if we are to stimulate economic recover (in post-conflict and post-crisis). In post-COVID Serbia for instance the sum is 100 euros per person, with particular focus on the pensioners. Great. But what happens to longer term systemic changes in health, job opportunities, economic recovery. A 100 euros does not go a long way in Serbia at least...and often spent by men not necessarily for the family...women might make a better spending choice as evidence shows. 

According to ESCAP globally, women in middle and lower income countries are 10 per cent less likely than men to own a mobile phone. This gender gap rises to 23 per cent for mobile internet usage. The largest mobile gender gap is paradoxically in South Asia. Across Asia and the Pacific, only 47 out of every 100 inhabitants use the Internet. The proportion of women using the Internet is 8.2 percentage points lower than the proportion of men in Asia Pacific, with an internet penetration rate of 39.7 per cent. Would be great to have data for post-conflict usage. Anyone?

Amira Albaldawi

سأراجع تقارير وأحصائيات وزارة التخطيط للتأكد من انها انجزت بعد سنوات الصراع مع الأرهاب 2014-2017 وأيضا للتأكد من انها شملت فئات معينة أكثر تأثرا مثل النازحات 

Dasa Silovic Moderator

@Amira Great because this can give us  a clue what expired, what worked and did not work and how to proceed. Good luck. Cheers

Hadeel Hazim

I think the economic reconstruction is considered as a high priority after women are abled to return back to their homeland, where in many cases even after post conflict IDPs are not allowed to return , we need to secure  a safe return for IDPs and to have good infrastructure, all depends on a political will, clear vision for the government; includes strategies with budgeting and strong anti-corruption policy and action against corruption on the ground not on papers !,which I believe is the main obstacle right now for rapid economic recovery,

By fighting corruption, we will have more investments, factories, open markets and trust and safe space for all to work and invest, this will definitely have  appositive impact on women's economic participation and oppurtinties  

 

 

Dishani

I agree with you. Hadeel. Returning to their native lands is also an emotional requirement that will contribute to post-conflict reconciliation. The IDPs yearn for a sense of belonging, like most people.

د بثينة المهداوي

لبناء اقتصاد أي مجتمع نحتاج الى بيئة امنة مع قرار سياسي بغض النظر عن جنس المستفيد، فاذا توفرت هاتين الدعامتين يمكننا العمل على جعل النساء هن المستفيدات الأكثر اذ سنستند على قوانين وتشريعات تساعد في تبوء النساء لمراكز صنع القرار الاقتصادي. وهذا ما نفتقر اليه في العراق اذ مازال الصراع فيه مستمر ولغاية الان لا يمكن اعتبارنا باننا في مرحلة بعد الصراع (ولعل هذا الشيء مهم معرفته للمهتمين بتبني نساء صانعات للسلام وداعمات له).

قد نحتاج فعلا الى احصائيات لتقييم المساواة الجندرية في الجانب الاقتصادية، ولكن يمكننا العمل على التقديرات للأعداد الواضحة في مجتمعات التي خاضت صراع، فنجد ان نسبة النساء اقل في الانخراط بالعمل في القطاع الخاص مثلا، بسب فقدان الامن والسلام وعدم وجود مستثمرين خارجيين، وحتى نسبتها اقل من الرجال في القطاع الحكومي (في مواقع صنع القرار) للسيطرة الذكورية عليه.

ان اعتماد التكنولوجيا في الانتعاش الاقتصادي صعب في مجتمعات الدول النامية لقلة استخدامها من قبل النساء ولضعف خدمات الانترنيت، كما ان استخدام التكنولوجية قد تقلص من عدد الايدي العاملة وهذا ما يذهب اليه الكثير من خبراء الاقتصاد.

لعلها فرصة الان ونحن في ظل تداعيات فايروس كورونا وتدني أسعار النفط للضغط على الساسة لتشريع قوانين العمل لضمان حقوق النساء (تثبيت الحقوق والواجبات عن طريقها) ولضمان حقوق النساء ذوات الإعاقة.

ولعل من اهم المشاريع الان التي تفيد النساء فتح مشاريع صغيرة في مناطق متفرقة واستخدام التكنولوجيا في التسويق للمنتوجات.

Rehab Al-Sanabani

Greetings from Yemen,

We need to conduct assessment and to collect dis-aggregated data. Ensure the empowerment and the participation of women is part of all our interventions. Held FGDs at the community level to be introduced to women needs, challenges and ideas. 

 

Dasa Silovic Moderator

I could not agree more on the interlinkages between a conducive political environment with the rule of law (re:corruption), democratic governance and the economy that would benefit women. Not being part of post-conflict decision-making as a rule, women are subjected to circumstances they did not create and yet have to bear the brunt. This not only implies laws that would ensure property rights, inheritance and land owenership, but relates to women's security and safety in undertaking economic activities, as well as market opportunities. This part of the discussion goes beyond economic governance and relates to an upcoming discussion on women's participation in peacebuilding and post-conflict political decision making.

There is no blueprint to rectify this situation and circumstances differ. In some cases incremental measures and programmes at local level have pressured  changes at the national level e.g. property rights for women. This often also happens under the pressure of international actors engaged in peacebuilding. And vice versa. The international development community, as well as local women's organisations and local governments need to seize these opportunities for empowerment.

Lesson 1: Studies demonstrate that most rapid economic development in communities has been achieved through the empowerment of women, political will and good governance.

 

laila yemen

ويعتبر استمرار الصراع ( في اليمن اصبح من الصعب الحصول على احصائيات واضحة للمستوى الحقيقي لوضع النساء بشكل حقيقي ولكن ووفقا لاحصائيات لوزارة التخطيط في العام 2018 فان نسبة النساء العاملات في ارتفاع ملحوظ نتيجة العديد من العوامل منها استمرار الصراع وارتفاع نسبة الفقر في اليمن وموت العديد من الذكور في ساحات القتال فقد أدى ذلك الى ارتفاع نسبة النساء العاملات في مجالات المجتمع المدني والمشاريع الصغيرة وانخفاض ملحوظا في مراكز صنع القرار ومؤسسات الدولة وألاهم مباحثات السلام اليمنية  والذي كان له انعكاسا كبيرا على تحجيم دورا النساء وارتفاع نسبة العنف ضدهم بشكل كبير ومنع حكومات الامر الواقع وخاصة في مناطق سيطرة جماعة الحوثي في الشمال لاي مشاريع تدريب او تمكين للنساء بل ووصل الامر الى اغلاق العديد من المشاريع الصغيرة التي تمتلكها النساء وأيضا استهداف العديد من الناشطات والمنظمات الاتي تراسها النساء ومن خلال تجاربنا وخبراتنا نجد انه  :

-           رغم وجود مواد تشريعية تدعم حقوق المرأة في الدستور اليمني السابق والمعمول به حتى الان مثل المادة 11 و29 و مادة 12 فقرة (ج) في الحزمة المدنية رقم 19 لعام 1991 التي تدعم هذا البند و العديد من المواد التي تم تعديلها في مسودة الدستور الجديد الا ان نسبة الفجوة النوعية لا تزال تشكل (91%) بين الذكور والاناث في مجال العمل اي لا تتعدى (10) نساء مقابل كل (100) وفقا لأخر احصائيات في العام 2018 * والتي لا يزال معظمها في مجالات منظمات المجتمع المدني والمشروعات الصغيرة.

-           وفقا للمعلومات التي لدينا فانه يلاحظ انحسار نسبة تواجدهن في المراكز والتعيينات الحكومية كما لم تتوفر أي احصائيات جديدة نظرا لعدم صدور أي تقارير جديدة تظهر اعداد حقيقية مبنية على ارض الواقع حيث ان التقارير الصادرة عن الحكومة غير مبنية على احصائيات ميدانية نظرا لانقسامات وسيطرة أطراف مختلفة على مؤسسات الدولة في اليمن.

-           الجدير بالذكر أن مشاركة المرأة وحقوقها لا تعتبر أولوية قصوى للجهات الفاعلة في الحكم لدى أي طرف من أطراف النزاع *

-           فنجد انحسارا في نسبة التعيينات للنساء والتي تتم في معظمها حاليا وفقا للانتماء للمكونات او صلة القرابة من قبل جميع الأطراف دون أي معايير واضحة في حكومة الشرعية وعدم فتح المجال امام النساء الاخريات وهذا ما نراه في معظم التعيينات والوفود التي تقوم بتشكيلها الحكومة واكتفائها بأسماء محددة فقط دون غيرها بهدف ان تظهر للعالم التزامها بشكل صوري فقط.

-           ففي حكومة الوفاق  2014 شملت 35 وزيرا بينهم 4 حقائب للنساء فقط , شكلت بعدها حكومتين لاحقتين بقيادة بن دغر ومعين عبد الملك المكونة من 37 حقيبة وزارية كان منها عدد 2 حقيبة وزارية للنساء فقط مع انخفاض كبير جدا للتعيينات في السلك العسكري والقضائي و غيره من التعيينات الهامة.

-           كما انه ووفقا لدراسات قمنا بها فان من المهم الإشارة الى وضع النساء في مناطق سيطرة جماعة انصار الله الحوثية والتي تسيطر على معظم أجزاء اليمن وتشكل نسبة النساء فيها اغلبية من حيث العدد والذي تعاني فيها النساء من الاقصاء التام حيث أصبحت التعيينات بنسبة 95% من نفس المكون او الطائفة فقط كما حدث في عمليات تعيين وزيرتين و تغيير جميع مديرات المدراس الحكومية ومؤسسات الدولة.

-           كما لا ننسى الإشارة الى انه ونتيجة السيطرة على معظم أموال صندوق المعاقين فقد اثر ذلك بشكل مباشر على نسبة النساء من ذوي الاحتياجات الخاصة واقصائهن ممن العمل وحرمانهن حاليا من الدعم  لمواصلة التعليم وبالتالي تقليل فرصهن في الحصول على العمل بشكل اكبر.

ومن خلال تجربتي كناشطة حقوقية وفي مجالات التنمية وبناء السلام فانني اؤكد بان مشاركة النساء ستضل محدودة على كل الأصعدة ما بعد الصراع مالم تكن متواجدة بقوة في مباحثات السلام ففي الجانب الاقتصادي .

  1. يجب التركيز على مشاريع التمكين الاقتصادي والتدريب المهني من قبل المنظمات الدولية بشكل عام وللنساء بشكل خاص.
  2. تخصيص الدعم المناسب للمنظمات التي تقودها النساء بشكل أكبر وأكثر فاعلية حيث تواجه معظم النساء مشاكل كبيرة في توفير رؤوس الأموال لاستمرار انشطتهن وتعزيز مشاركاتهن في الجانب لاقتصادي نظرا للعادات والتقاليد وصعوبة القوانين وسيطرة الجانب الذكوري على مراكز سنع القرار ومؤسسات الدولة.
  3. رفع مستوى التوعية بأهمية مشاركة المرأة ودعم تواجدها بشكل جدي في مراكز صنع القرار بهدف الغاء التقييم السطحي لاحتياجات المرأة خلال عمليات التسوية.
  4.  يجب العمل على التركيز على تجارب الشخصيات النسائية الجديدة والفاعلة والمؤثرة على ارض الواقع والتي نالت ثقة المجتمع نظرا لقدراتهن على التأثير الإيجابي في تغيير نظرة المجتمع نحو عمل النساء وقدرتهن على القيادة في شتى القطاعات.

 

 

 

تنظر النساء للاحداث دوما من منظور مختلف اكثر سلمية وتنمويا هو:

  1. تهتم النساء عادة بالسلام والمشاريع التي تهتم بالإنسان والتعليم والصحة وغيرها أكثر من جوانب التسليح وتسعى لحل قضايا الصراعات بشكل أكثر جدية.
  2. تنظر المرأة للمشاريع التنموية بشكل أكثر تركيزا وعمقا.
  3. من الجيد ان نرى العدالة الانتقالية توضع على طاولات الحوار لاحلال السلام في دول الصراع ومنها اليمن ولكن غاليا ما يتم التغاضي بعد الصراع عن قضايا الانتهاكات وخاصة التي تم ارتكابها ضد النساء والأطفال خلال الصراع بحجة انها قد تؤدي الى افشال تنفيذ الاتفاقيات مما يؤدي الى ارتفاع نسبة الانتهاكات ضدهم وجعل قضيتهم قضية ثانوية في ما بعد إحلال السلام.
  4. يبقى تنفيذ القرارات الدولية المتعلقة بالمراة غير كافيا ولا يحضى بالدعم الدولي الحقيقي وتبقى دوما المراة مغيبة عن طاولات السلام او تعطى دورا هامشيا ولا تعطى الدعم الدولي المناسب خلال ذلك لاثبات وجودها رغم وجود قيادات قوية اثبتت وجودها على ارض الواقع مما يؤدي الى عدم قبول اطراف الصراع لهذا الوجود القرار وبالتالي تحجيم الدور الاقتصادي للنساء في معظم الأحيان رغم المقاومة الكبيرة التي تحاول القيام بها القيادات النسائية.

 

من اهم الأمثلة التي أدت الى رفع مستوى مشاركة النساء في المجال الاقتصادي هو مشاريع التمكين رغم محدوديتها و استمرار حصرها في بعض الاعمال فقط الا انه كان لها دورا تحفيزيا للعديد من النساء في السعي لاقامة مشاريعهن الخاصة وبدراتهن المحدودة وأيضا كان لذلك دورا إيجابيا في تشجيع العديد من النساء على الخوض في اعمال لم تكن متاحة لهن من قبل وأيضا كسر حاجز العادات والتقاليد التي كانت تمنع النساء عن العمل .

هناك بالطبع مشاريع لم تنجح في معظم مشاريع النقد مقابل العمل والتي حرمت منها النساء كون معظم هذه الاعمال غير متاحة للنساء وفقا للعادات والتقاليد اليمنية , وأيضا استمرار الاعتماد على خطة المساعدات الإنسانية والتي يعتبرها الكثيرين مهينة وغير كافية لاحتياجاتهم خاصة في ضل استمرار الفساد وسيطرة حكومات الامر الواقع على معونات وتحكمها في نوع المشاريع بل وإيقاف ومنع أي مشاريع خاصة بتأهيل وتدريب وتمكين النساء

من اهم الأمثلة التي تمت في اليمن هو قيام العديد من النساء بفتح مشاريعهن الصغيرة رغم قدراتهن المحدودة على تمكين النساء اقتصاديا رغم محدوديتها الا انها ساهمت بشكل جيد في قدرة النساء على العمل وتشجيع العدد الاخر على البحث عن طرق مبتكرة للعمل

كيف يمكننا ضمان أن الانتعاش الاقتصادي السريع يزيد من الفرص الاقتصادية للمرأة؟ ما هي التدابير المحددة التي نجحت؟ ما العقبات التي واجهتها؟

عبر رفع نسبة المشاريع المخصصة لدعم تدريب و تمكين النساء وتوفير القروض المصغرة والمسهلة لهن للبدء في تنفيذ هذه المشاريع بالإضافة الى ضرورة ابراز قصص النجاح لكسر الحواجز وتشكيل حافز قوي للنساء الاخريات وأيضا المساهمة في تغيير نظرة المجتمع نحو عمل النساء .

هل كان هناك أي دعم خارجي مهم بشكل خاص؟ هل هناك دروس للتعلم من توقيت هذا الدعم؟ ما الدعم الذي قد يكون ساعد ولكن لم يكن قادمًا؟

للأسف ان الدعم الدولي لتمكين النساء لا يزال ضعيفا معظم الحالات التي وصلت فيها النساء الى مرحلة التمكين كانت بجهودهن الذاتية وهذا سببا رئيسيا في استمرار انخفاض نسبة مشاركتهن نتيجة لقلة التدريب وقلة الموارد المالية رغم ارتفاع نسبة النساء الاتي أصبحن معدمات ماليا ويتحملن كامل المسئولية لإعالة عائلاتهن

فمن تجارب نجاح واقعية للنساء في مجتمع مثل اليمن نجد بان هؤلاء النساء اكتسبن احترام المجتمع نتيجة تميزهن في اعمالهن رغم صعوبتها

هل يمكن للتكنولوجيات الجديدة أن تساعد على تمكين المرأة في حالات التعافي؟ إذا كان الأمر كذلك، فكيف؟ هل يمكنهم المساعدة في ضمان الدمج؟

بالطبع يجب العمل على اخراج مشاركة النساء من قوقعة الاعمال الحرفية النمطية حيث يجب العمل على تأهيل النساء المتعلمات وتدريبهن على استخدام التكنولوجيا الحديثة لتطوير اعمالهن وأيضا للتواصل مع العالم و الاطلاع على تجارب الاخرين والخوض في اعمال أخرى جديدة مهما كانت مختلفة عن ما هو مألوف في المجتمع.

من خلال تجربتنا في تشكيل التحالفات والقيام بأكبر حملات للمجتمع المدني وأيضا برنامج تعزيز العمل وتوحيد الجهود بين المنظمات المحلية والدولية والحكومية منذ العام 2015 فقد وجدنا بانه يجب علينا أولا العمل على تغيير اليات العمل مع المنظمات المحلية خاصة في ضل اتساع حجم الاحتياج وذلك بالعمل على توسيع الشراكة مع المنظمات التي تراسها النساء وضرورة العمل معها وفقا للتخصص أي كلا يعمل في مجال تخصص و توزيعها وفقا للمديريات داخل كل لمحافظة كم ا يجب العمل على تعزيز اليات الرقابة والمحاسبة وان تكون المنظمات الدولية على اطلاع بالقيمة الحقيقية لتنفيذ المشاريع بهدف تجفيف منابع الفساد وبالتالي استفادة اكبر عدد من النساء من هذه الأموال المخصصة لتمكينهن وتخصيص نسبة لذوي الاحتياجات الخاصة في مشاريع التمكين بهدف إيقاف معاملتهم كجزء منفصل او مختلف عن المجتمع والذي سيساعد بشكل كبير في بحث الجهات المنفذة عنهن وفيما يتعلق بالمثليين فان من المعروف بانهم غير ظاهرين داخل المجتمع المدن يوان هذه المواضيع لا يتم التحدث عنها او اظهارها في اليمن مما يستدعي التعامل مع جميع النساء بشكل سواء في المشاريع بغض النظر عن ما هية طبيعتهم الجنسية .

 

يجب دعم تعليم البنات ومحو الامية نظرا للتراجع الكبير الذي يحدث نتيجة الحرب والذي رفع من نسبة العنف ضد النساء فكلما زاد التمكين بالتالكيد سيكون له تاثيرا عكسيا على انخفاظ مستوى العنف الاسري

أدت الحرب منذ 2014 الى ارتفاع نسبة الفقر بين النساء وأيضا ارتفاع نسبة النساء الاتي توجهن نحو العمل باشكاله المختلفة وخاصة المجتمع المدني والمشاريع الصغيرة

Iman Abdualrahman

المشاكل التي تحول دون مشاركة المرأة في الحياة الاقتصادية والنمو هي التي تشكل العقبة الاكبر في عملية التنمية المستدامة والتي تؤدي الى الخسارة الاقتصادية، وبالتالي خسارة 27% من ناتج الدخل المحلي وفق تقديرات صندوق النقد الدولي.

وبالتالي فان الوصول المحدود للنساء الى مناصب المسؤولية واتخاذ القرار يؤثر سلبا على النمو الاقتصادي، حيث تكشف العديد من الدراسات ان هذا التأثير الناتج عن انعدام المساواة بين النساء والرجال يرجع الى اختلاف في السلوك المتعلق بالانفاق والاستهلاك. فالنساء يملن الى تخصيص نصيب اكبر من موارد الاسرة لتلبية الاحتياجات المنزلية والاساسية ، علاوة على ذلك تفضل النساء الادخار والاستثمار. هذا من ناحية. ومن ناحية اخرى يظل نشاط المراة متمركزا على القطاعات ذات التأهيل الضعيف ويقتصر على عدد محدود من المهن ( لا ننسى الصورة النمطية الموجودة لدى المجتمعات بالنسبة لعمل المراة)، لذلك نجد ان ثلاثة ارباع النساء هن من العاملات او مستخدمات او ضمن وظائف مقتصرة على قطاعات محددة على المستوى القطاع العام (كالتمريض والتعليم).

كما ان النساء والفتيات متمركزات في الانشطة ذات المردود والقيمة الضعيفة في سوق العمل، لذا فهن ضحايا التمييز على مستوى الاجور. اما اللاتي تابعن تعليمهن فهن الاكثر عرضة للبطالة كما اشرنا اليه سابقا، بالإضافة الى ان عملها ضمن القطاع الخاص لا يجد احتراما وتقديرا للتمييز الحاصل ضدها على مستوى المجتمع في الغالب حتى وان كان قانون العمل يعطيها الحقوق والمزايا التي من الممكن ان تستفيد منها. وتبقى الوظائف في القطاع العام غير مؤنثة بما يكفي على مستوى القيادة، كما يبقى الوصول الى مراكز اتخاذ القرار محدودا جدا.

اما في القطاع الخاص هناك خرق كبير للحقوق الجاري العمل بها كانعدام التعاقد والتغطية الاجتماعية. و يظل نشاط النساء متمركزا في القطاعات ذات التأهيل الضعيف، ويقتصر على عددٍ محدودمن المهن . مما يعرضهن الى نسبة اكبر من البطالة.

    قام معهد المرأة القيادية بعمل مسح الكتروني بتغطية خمس محافظات (بغداد، صلاح الدين، الانبار، كركوك و نينوى). كل هذه المحافظات فيما عدا العاصمة بغداد، تأثرت مباشرة من النزاعات المسلحة ابان سيطرة تنظيم الدولة الاسلامية في العراق والشام (داعش) الارهابي مما اثر بشكل كبير على مستوى دخل الفرد في هذه المحافظات.

 وقد لاحظنا من خلال المسح ان الاجراءات الحكومية بمنع التجوال والحجر المنزلي بسبب فايروس كوفيد-19 كان له الاثر الكبير للجانب الاقتصادي. وخاصة النساء والفتيات ذوات التعليم المنخفض والنساء العاملات باجور يومية ضمن (الاقتصاد غير الرسمي).

وكان هناك مؤشر اخر حيث ان اغلب هذه النساء كن يعشن في حالة ذعر وخوف من استمرار الحجر ونفاذ المدخرات داخل الاسرة.

ومن التجارب الناجحة التي لمسناها، حيث انه بعد احداث 2003 كانت هناك مناقصات لمشاريع خدمية للقطاع الخاص وتم دعوة النساء (سيدات الاعمال) للقيام بهذا العمل، حيث كانت هناك سيدات اعمال اقل بكثير من حيث العدد مقاربة للرجال. فاعطيت للمراة 25% من الدرجات في قبول المناقصات للدخول الى سوق العمل. هنا كانت هذه خطوة ناجحة لتشجيع النساء لدخول سوق العمل وفعلا بعد فترة قصيرة ارتفع عدد سيدات الاعمال الى (370) امرأة ، حيث كانت هذه البادرة سابقة على مستوى العراق. وايضا ظهرت سيدات اعمال في محافظات في فترة الانعاش كانت تتسم بانغلاق تام داخل المجتمع كالانبار وصلاح الدين ونينوى على سبيل المثال. وكانت هذه خطوة ممتازة في مرحلة الانعاش وما بعد الصراع.

ومن الاسباب التي جعلت المراة بعيدة عن سوق العمل ومشاركتها الضعيفة كون المراة اكثر حذرا وحرصا على الالتزام بالتعليمات والتشريعات الخاصة بنوع العمل الذي تقوم به. لذا دائما اقدامها بالمشاريع تكون اكثر حذرا وهذا يجعل من عملها وتطورها اكثر بطئا في ظل المنافسة الكبيرة في سوق العمل في العراق والذي غالبيته من الرجال وتصل الى مرحلة الخوف ان تقتحم هذا السوق.

بالاضافة انه لا توجد قوانين داعمة للمرأة لإعطائها تمييزا ايجابيا تشجعها على الدخول الى سوق العمل. لذا نحتاج الى تشريعات وفرص اكبر، والعمل على تخصيص بعض المشاريع للنساء فقط دون الرجال كبناء المدارس والمستشفيات والكثير من الجوانب الانسانية التي يمكن ان تبدع فيها المرأة.

وبالنسبة لاستخدام التكنلوجيا فهي حديثة الانتشار في العراق وطريقة استخدامها حديث ايضا، الا ان نسبة استخدامها للرجال والشباب اكثر من النساء والفتيات. وهذا يرجع الى عوامل كثيرة كارتفاع اسعارها و التحفظات المجتمعية لاستخدامهن للأجهزة الذكية. ايضا وفي ظل ازدياد جرائم الابتزاز الالكتروني فقد حد من نسبة استخدامهن لهذه الاجهزة كونها ادت في الغالب الى مشاكل عشائرية ودوامة من العنف الذي لم يحمد عقباه. وهذا ما لمسناه نتيجة المسح الذي قمنا به في المحافظات الخمس اثناء الاتصال بالنساء والفتيات. فقد كان هناك تضييق لاستخدامها في ظل مراقبة ذويها. و عدم توافرها في المناطق الريفية. والنساء والفتيات ذات التعليم المتدني كن محرومات من استخدامها وبأعداد كبيرة.

لذا فالعمل على تمكينهن امر ضروري يحتاج الى العمل اكثر في استخدام التكنلوجيا بالنسبة للمرأة الريفية حتى ولو كانت على مستويات اساسية في التعامل مع الاجهزة المتاحة لهن وخاصة في الاعمال التي يقمن بها في هذه المناطق. 

Dasa Silovic Moderator

Thank you @Iman for this insightful and very empirical contribution. You’ve touched on many areas, barriers including cultural, opportunities and examples from legislation to the use of technology by women and girls in rural areas.  It’s interesting to note that women may be less prone to risktaking than men and that affirmative action as well as incentives are lacking to support women in private businesses. What about loans and collateralsfor women's SMEs? Is the situation similar in Yemen?

Hadeel Hazim

For data Issue, I wonder whether a proper Gender analysis would be conducted to build on, Moreover I think in our region we need to think about women economic participation in the Gross National Income to consider women unpaid domestic work , family care,

Regarding new technology ; I know many young women who started their own businesses  ( online marketing), this needs good internet services which I'm not sure the internet services in Iraq is high quality vs expensive services comparing by other countries in the region.On the other hand I observed other ladies who have their own shops in the local markets, but these all are in cities in Urban areas, my concerns are about women in rural areas; who they suffered from lack of access to their lands, water, new technology for agriculture in general, talking about agriculture aspect leads me to another important point that has happened and repeated in different areas in Iraq recently and the last year, where male farmers couldn't protect their orchards from fire( burning) ( from unknown bodies/ groups !!) so I wonder when men are unable to protect or even stop / defense for their gardens and orchards so how women in such situation can react, what power she has , while no body can stop these groups from destroying  thousands lands, that will turn to our first point about corruption and real will from the government to protect its people, what about rule of law???

Roxani Roushas

Thank you for the interesting insights! I'm particularly interested in questions 1 and 2 on women's priorities and perspectives when it comes to economic decision-making. Any thoughts?

Sundus Abass

Unfortunately women's  views  economic decisions in post-crisis contexts. are often ignored. Rather, the methods of reaching women to involve them in the critical economic  decisions in early recovery are still limited and far from innovation. It is important to bear in mind that women in conflict context  are burdened with a lot of psychological, social and economic burdens and sometimes women  are required to struggle against all these fronts, so I think it is the moment to reconsider the hypotheses that were matured many decades ago.

I believe empowering women in post-conflict areas need to be through multi sectoral approaches  by  enhancing their role in the development and re building process , should be consulted  to embody the principle of equal opportunities ,  providing a space for women during peace period, opening legal windows for displaced women to learn about their rights and how to obtain it as well as adopt a women-friendly borrowing policy and easy guarantees to facilitate financial resources for the displaced, poor female householders and encourage traditional industries to create successful employment opportunities for women while providing them with conducive incentives and supporting them financially, professionally and in marketing.
in additional to enhancing the participation of women in the private sector by providing business incubators to create a gender sensitive environment in the private sector, adopting gender social security mechanisms in particular for the professions and businesses women practice in the private sector.

د بثينة المهداوي

ارى من المهم مشاركتكم لدراسة نفذتها (شبكة التنمية المستدامة ٢٠٣٠"تم") خلال هذا المدة في العراق، تحت عنوان (نحو مستقبل اكثر استجابة واستدامة: العراق في ظل جائحة فايروس كورونا) 

كانت احدى نتائجها ان المواطنين يعتمدون بنسبة (٤.٦٪) على خدمة التوصيل (عبر الانترنيت) للحصول على حاجاتهم اليومية، وهذا يقودنا الى ان النساء امامهن فرصة عمل جيدة اذا ما تدربن على هذا النوع من العمل في تقديم الخدمات للزبائن عن طريق التسويق عبر الانترنيت

لعلها فكرة تدريب للنساء في الدول النامية ومنها العراق

Frances Guy Moderator

it is great to see such thoughtful contributions from Iraq in this discussion but it would also be good to hear some examples of where women are engaged in key decisions that will make a difference to social cohesion in post-conflict situations in Iraq and elsewhere.  For example,  rebuilding schools so that they are accessible to mixed communities, or ensuring water systems are available in places that women can access safely.  are there good examples of where women have been engaged in those type of decisions?  and how did it happen?  of course there are essential priorities in daily lives that take up time, but i am sure that the opportunties Dasa mentioned of participation post-conflict do exist.  Do we know how to ensure they are used for the benefit of all, through the participation of women?

Dasa Silovic Moderator

Thank you for sharing the link. It might be useful also to look at the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) Gender Strategy: https://www.ebrd.com/gender-strategy.html

It looks at persisting unequal economic opportunities between women and men by addressing access to employment, finance and loans, skills and access to services. One of the most striking issues was access to finance (loans) for women’s entrepreneurship in a transition environment since women lack collateral.

International development banks (IDBs) can have an important role to play in promoting women’s participation in the economy, especially in post-crisis, In providing financial assistance and loans (to government and the private sector) they should make sure that their support to corporate governance, project design, standards of business conduct, and innovation are gender sensitive. But gender equality and women’s empowerment still remain out of the realm of lending conditionalities and are not therefore enforceable.

While it looks at the transition environment and not post-conflict, the Strategy spells out the components to take into account, both in analysis and project design, when promoting women’s economic participation in transition economies.

What are the experiences, for instance, with micro-financing in Iraq? 

John Ede

Women can and are able to play critical roles in post-conflict in cases where they brought to the decision table. The capacity is already often inherent.

In Ancha, a community in Sanga LGA, Kaduna state Nigeria, once known for ethnicity, tribal and fermer/herders crisis, now experiencing relative peace, we noticed with keen interest the role of the traditional leader who often invites women to the decision table and hear from them how certain issues can be solved. The wife of the traditional leaders meets with women to share experiences and knowledge. And in terms of programming, leverage on the collective partnership of women to peace building.

In terms of economics, most rural communities are Agricultural dependents, and women make up the link between farms and market, so that they generated the greater financial resources and it will be remarkable to learn from their wealth of knowledge and experience.

Regrettably, these could be achieved after decidedly providing psychosocial and trauma services in whatever scale to help women who have suffered from the conflicts to begin to give back in the post-conflict. Often, this is lacking.

 

swedi bilombele
Dear Pablo Castillo Diaz Greetings, I hope you are holding all well during this difficult time covid-19. after the first war, the representative of gouvernments gathered at the paris peace conference in 1919 to establish the league of representatives of women's were there to give their proposals regarding the convenant of the league of Nations and in order to prevent the exclusion of women from the provisions and decisions. Today the women’s of the world of peace making, from village council to international resolutions , overs the last decades the number of instar-state and interstate conflicts. Fueled by ethnic and rivalries, many hostilities are at an all-time high in human history. Unlike prior centuries, todays battles overwhelmingly occur in people’s villages and homes. As such, wars directly impact civilians as they are the overwhelming majority of the victims of war. Women and girls are targeted for special forms of attack as they are raped , forced, into marriage , abducted by warring groups and exposed to disease HIV-AIDS . In order to prevent the exclusion of women from the provisions and decisions with regard to your question regarding Role of women in post-conflict economic decision making, in this context the women must be first involved in the decision making and have an capacity on the ground that women be given access to decisions making positions in the society , and be include in the program and activities to promote and to take measures to recognize the right of a woman in creating of an education dialogue, and health care, and the control and reduction of disease, through women’s organization , campaign , to ensure among other, that women and their rights would not be neglected. In recent decades in DR.Congo, many NGOS women’s leaders are mobilized to monitor the events by creating massive publicity for the impact of war during this period of post conflict issues in organising the activities from around the country what to bringing the public’s attention and the right to distribute their information statements , lobbying strategy was developed action in mobilised groups, reinforced to the point of forming a common front to claim for their rights. Sometimes, the exacerbation can reach an irreversible point where there can be a direct confrontation with severe human, economic, environmental consequence. Those violent conflicts thus always violate dangerously human rights such as : - The right to life - The right to education (learning) - The right to health - The right to a nationality - The right to freedom of movement - The right to own a property - The right to peace, security, wholesome environment.
Amira Albaldawi

Hi  Frances Guy , we miss you , I think  there is a limit participation of women in reconciliation efforts  in communities after conflict because  there are no leader  positions or decision  makers among women  in  the government  & parliament reconciliation committees , but in  Haider Abadi government the minister of  municipalities, construction and housing  Mrs Ann Nafiaa  (2016-2018) has taken a number of tours in the provinces that have been freed from terrorism,to assess the needs for reconstruction and the restoration of municipal services that help IDPs to return later . On the other hand  women CSOs leaders  have worked very hard  in the liberated provinces  on reintegration between IDPs -host communities and returned-remained communities  , as well as their efforts in women displaced & returnees rehabilitation 

swedi bilombele
Of course, however, much remains to be done in order to allow women to have access to a sufficient number of decision-making bodies, inequalities in opportunity and gender rights still persisting between men and women cause the Democratic Republic to lose of Congo the useful contribution of women to the achievement of its objectives of sustainable human development. The involvement of women in the search for lasting peace (resolution 1325). At the level of the eastern provinces of DR. Congo, women are mobilizing to be able to make their contribution to the upcoming elections but also in the search for peace in certain parts of the country where they feel to be the first victims in the many conflicts that have grieved the East of the DRC. Several times in conflict zones, women have been the first victims of rape and other inhuman and degrading treatment, even though they have never been involved in the war. However, these atrocities which are directed against women have no other outcome than that of perpetuating the suffering of women. This situation had prompted women's organizations to form a synergy with a view to combating the various ills that gnaw at women in the eastern provinces of the DRC.
Dasa Silovic Moderator

The UN Peacebuilding Commission passed a resolution on women's role in peacebuilding and economic recovery (2013). It highlighted that women are more likely to spend their income on supporting the well-being of their family and the community. Furthermore, women’s economic empowerment, including the inheritance of land and property, is a key component of ensuring women’s rights in the post-conflict contexts and beyond It also strongly linked women's economic empowerment to political empowerment. 

Since there is no one size-fits-all we should endorse the view @John that leadership is important, and especially that of male leaders/[poticians and those in power. So we may consider a two-pronged approach - pressure at national leadership level (and through the international community) for an enabling environment and pressure at the local level for support to womens' initiatives to engage in, and bolster, economic activity and development. Local level, as evidence shows, unfortunately, is subsistence and basic pick-me-up primarily and not enough as much as we want and as much effort we exert. But there is nothing like stimulating citizens and the local communities to arise above their potential and be ;evers of change, stability and sustainability.

swedi bilombele
Dear Madam/Sir, Greetings Compliment of the day, The security council has adopted resolution1325, which calls for integration of women in all conflict resolution processes as well as actions for resettlement , rehabilitation and post conflict reconstruction . it also recommends special training for all peace keeping personnel on the protection , special needs and human rights of women and children in conflict situations. Such a gender perspective would also include measures that support local women’s and that involve women in the implementation of peace agreements and to have access on the following post of decision below: The equitable distribution of rights, resources and power, as well as standards and repressive cultural rules limit the capacity of many people to act on the climate change. promote an approach to adaptation that supports poor women and men so that they have access to the resources, rights and opportunities they need, Activities that aim to favorably change gender inequalities involve working to both with men and women, as well as with policy makers and other decision makers, to promote gender equality.
Dasa Silovic Moderator

@ Swedi. Thanks a million for bringing this up since we are hoping that this discussion can contribute to our preparations for the 20th year anniversary of the UN SC Resolution 1325. In these complex (and difficult times) for all of us (from the CORONA and the economic crisis looming to the tumutltous geopolitical order) it would be useful that our approach, lessons learnt (and criticism) of progress, or lack thereof, may be heard.

What has worked and what has not worked? What has worked at national/local levels and what has worked or not worked in the international response and support. These are times when we should not be complacent.

I feel that the Beijing +25 meetings and documents remained deja vu (business as usual) and we are not in an era of business as usual. So many things have piled up especially in the unfinished business of conflicts, post-conflicts, recovery. Peacebuilding remains fragile. Much suffering and pain has been endured by women and children, the young and the elderly, as well as combatants who never wanted to fight. And they remain in pain. So how can we develop a recovery response. Maybe the crisis is a time when we speak out about these things, be open and alert ourselves and the international community to the crisis, the challenges, the lessons and potential way out. While the UN remains, fortunately, that overarching and neutral mechanism, each one of us can react locally and nationally. My network in the Balkans especially seeks to contribute to the discussion on "transforming politics through a gender lens" that includes economic, socilal and cultural- it is our lives, our politics, our future and that of our children.

Just a thought...and lesosns...

swedi bilombele
Dear Ms. Dasa Silovic The chair, Compliment of the day, I hope you are holding all well during this difficult time covid-19. Please, I thank you for your comment suggestion in which you have shared in the link with regard of women’s economic empowerment, including the inheritance of land and property, is a key component of ensuring women’s rights in the post-conflict contexts and beyond it also strongly linked women's economic empowerment to political empowerment. In reply for your comment explained above. However as you may know the development programs may also design to support to empower women through: - Off -farm employment - To establishment of micro-credit, low-income families in the rural areas of beneficiaries will be women , access to credit , using entrepreneurship training, skill empowerment through training to enhance women’s socio-economic status as well as ensure their greater participation in national development more specifically for the project is so designed to improve women farmers and entrepreneurs access to credit, which are promotion of group formation, as well as training of women beneficiaries in institutional and enterprise development plus management. - Increased educational levels , as well as their very visible involvement in politics at the local level and national levels, - Access to productive resources as well as markets, - Enhancing the quality of life for women in development to technical training to valorization and deinstitutionalization of wisdom-based learning from others. - To analyze and evaluate the degree of gender –sensitivity in the government’s policies that focus on the alleviation of poverty , emphasized the development and empowerment of women. - Intensifies the existing gender inequalities thereby undermining the effectiveness of national effort to pursue goals of poverty eradication , access to resources for women is a development issue that need to be prioritized in national government policies and plans, - Ensure gender equity and economic justice. Effort must be done by policies –makers to more effectively include women and their issues in the policy and practice of development: - Including these issues in policy must not limit stereotype women’s roles and women’s roles in all areas of life must be acknowledged in all policies. - Engaged civil society organizations that represent the poor and marginalized in policy formulation , when participation of the poor has been championed, this has often done without consideration of gender disparities between women and men in access to resource , and in power and authority. - Bringing gender equality concern to flowed process, the case study nonetheless, illustrates that partnership between government departments, donors, and civil society can introduce the voices and active participation of the excluded to key policy processes, - Policy makers and PR actioners must ensure that difference (both between women and men and within these groups) is taken into account in the planning , implementation and evaluation of policies and interventions, policy –makers must be trained in the financial skills of gender analysis and planning in order to adequately understand the roles ; responsibilities , priorities , and activities of women and men. - Bringing the voices of citizens to institutions through civil society organizing resources must be provided for activities that expand the participation and capacity of women in the network organizations. - Relationship between civil society groups and states bodies are valuable and must be fostered , and project planners should seize opportunities within change process brought about by social movements and use expertise and experience within civil society to develop better gender –sensitive –policies . - Groups need to be aware of entry points into decision –making and policy dialogue important local , national and international events, it is important to capitalize on public consultation and existing campaign that may be introduced as part of these process. Hoping to hearing from you. Warmly M. Crispin.
asmaa jameel

أود ان أبدأ مداخلتي من بعض النواتج المهمة التي يمكن البناء عليها لتحسين دور المرأة  في بناء القرار الاقتصادي بعد النزاع

في العراق حدث تغيرا مهم في أوضاع النساء خلال عمليات النزوح التي رافقت النزاع , اذ استطاعت العديد من النساء ان تحصل على شكل من الاستقلالية والحرية المكتسبة نتيجة توليها مسؤوليات واعباء جديد.

وبناءا على دراسات ميدانية اجريتها على النساء النازحات فأن قدرة المرأة على اتخاذ القرارات العائلية قد ازدادت خلال ظروف النزوح وهو واحد من أهم ابعاد التمكين, وزيادة هذه القدرة قد وضعها في مركز القيادة والسيطرة داخل العائلة ويمكن ان يمتد الى المجتمع المحيط بها الامر الذي يمكن ان يغير من هياكل السلطة الابوية التي كانت موجودة قبل الصراع

لقد بينت نتائج الدراسة الميدانية التي اجريت في العام 2016 ان هناك تحول في القدرة على اتخاذ القرارات الخاصة بالعائلة بعد النزوح اذ انخفضت نسبة النساء اللاتي افدن بان الزوج هو من يتخذ القرار من 29% الى 26 في المقابل ارتفعت نسبة النساء اللاتي افدن بانهن يتخذن القرارات لوحدهن من15%الى20% مما يعني ان ظروف النزوح قد زادت من قدرة المرأة وتمكينها غير ان السلطة قد لاتنتقل الى المرأة دائما اذيظهر الشكل ارتفاع نسبة النساء اللاتي افدن بان رجال العائلة .يتخذون القرارات بعد النزوح

كما بينت الدراسة ان هناك تحول في نظرة المرأة لقيمتها داخل اسرتها وهو واحد من مؤشرات قياس التمكين وهذه النظرة مهمة لاحساسها بتمكينها . وقد استنتجت الدراسة ان  51% من النساء المشاركات بالدراسة يرين انفسهن  بانهن المعيلات الوحيدات لاسرهن حتى مع وجود الزوج. فعدم قدرة الرجل على العمل وجلب الرزق. والاعتماد على المساعدات المقدمة ، واضطلاع المراة تحديدا بمهمة السعي للحصول على هذه المساعدات ( لان  الرجل في المخيمات يأنف من الوقوف في طلب واخذ المساعدات ويمتنع من السعي وراء طوابير الاغاثة)  قد جعل المراة ترى نفسها بانها هي المسؤولة الوحيدة عن اعالة العائلة وادارة شؤونها حتى مع وجود الرجل( رب الاسرة). من جهة اخرى فان تعرض النازحين في بعض المناطق الى الاختطاف والقتل والاعتقالات جعل الرجال يخافون من مغادرة منازلهم مما دفع بالنساء الى واجهة المسؤولية فاصبحن المسؤولات عن القيام(بكل شيء) على حد قولهن من جمع المساعدات الى التسوق والتعامل مع السلطات والامور الادارية حتى ان بعضهن مسجلات كربات اسر على بطاقات نظام التوزيع العام.

ان هذه المؤشرات والنواتج تجعل المرأة في المناطق التي خاضت النزاع مهيئة وبدرجة كبيرة لقيادة المبادرات الاقتصادية . غير ان المشكلة تكمن  في توفير الفرص الملائمة. وهنا يمكن ان يكون للمنظمات الدولية دور مهم في تنفيذ مشاريع أقتصادية تقودها النساء

laila yemen

بالفعل يوجد تشابة كبير بين ما يحدث للمراة ف العراق الشقيق وما يحدث في اليمن فقد ادت الحرب الطاحنة الى تغير كبير في دور النساء داخل المجتمع على كل الاصعدة

Sundus Abass

In Iraq during 2015-2016, through LADP ll (local development area program ) undp supported the local governments to develop their local development plans, with the intention of building on the unique bottom-up approach and local ownership modalities established in LADP II, to allow the local women  to take over and scale up interventions at the national level. Women had a partial impact on setting development priorities through: 
- local women office were member in the steering committee (women offices was established by undp support on 2013, as sub-national women's machineries  at the governorate level)
- The involvement of women's organizations in all local consultations to determine development priorities
On the other hand, women engineers participate in rebuilding infrastructures in a large number of governorates (Basra as example ) and  specifically the new liberated areas after liberation from ISL , for example in Nineveh
It wasn’t smooth process , there were many challenges because of  male domination and the limit  space for women to participate in economic decision-making. I believe in post conflict area still there is a need to support women not only as victims but also as decision makers . 

Dinita

It’s important to engage local women leaders to open a discussion with women in households affected by disaster. In some cultures, women are hesitant to speak openly with male officer, therefore, deployment of women officers in recovery situation can influence the process.

In Indonesia, one of the first distributed aid to Palu after earthquake was organized by women, that was the wives of military and mothers network. In the field, we used community based network to deliver the aid mainly to women and children. We found that women was very active in using social media and thus, able to locate them via their post.

The work also engaged local women government official to ensure  delivery was prioritized and safe from theft. 

In Japan, Governor of Tokyo has been taking a tough stance on coronavirus. Her tough approach influenced other governors to take similar approach despite the national government’s orders to wait. Again, this displays the importance of local female leaders in political and economic decision-making at recovery process.

John Ede

Boko Haram terror attacks that used to be internal conflict is exasperated by its regional context with its overreacting impacts on women and girls. We see an increase in the terror groups using women and girls for bombings, having kidnapped women and girls who they use as sex slave and domestic helps.

There is great lessons to learn from survivors of this gruesome and weak actions by armed groups using women and girls as 'women prisoners of war and prisoners of conscience' by providing psychological and trauma support and their lessons learnt that add to the overall efforts in post-conflict situations especially helping to build local resilience and preparedness.

In most post-conflict contexts, women and girls are not invited to the lessons learned dialogue, since most conflicts happens in traditional context where women and girls engagements or involvement is perceived as a male dominant role.

There is the needs to open up dialogues early possibly at peacetime to build local capacity in preparedness and survivable skills to help Cope in the case of eventualities. 

Using trainedand skilled women personal to engage with women could help build trust, provides support and open up the lines of communication especially post-conflict settings.

Dishani

Thank you for bringing this up, John. Sexual violence is an invisible war crime. Women and girls confront social taboo against speaking publicly about such matters. This mindset augments the widespread belief that conflict-related sexual violence is a by-product of war.

Dasa Silovic Moderator

@Sundus: it woild be very interesting to hear what women have identified as their development priorities. Does it, and how, differ from their male counterparts.

It is interesting to hear about women working on infrastructure projects. Can you be more specific as to their roles and the environment they have been working in.

Thanks

Sundus Abass

In general,   women participation in the steering committees was 1-2%, and all steering committees were  headed by men ,  deputies and co-chairs are men , meetings  facilitators are men , and even notes  taker is a man.
Sometimes they intentionally embarrassing  the  woman when she makes an intervention, interrupting her, and  ignoring her comment . maybe it seems a minor challenges, but it is a real struggle in all  meetings where important decisions are made..  In Al-Diwaniyah , for example (in southern Iraq), the director of the Women’s Office insisted that building secondary schools for girls  should be more than to boys (not equally ) simply because family do not allow the girl to go to the school far from the residence sites in villages and cities, while the boys are allowed to do so. In Sulimania (KR-I ) the planning department and Education department was led by women in additional to women office so when they supported each others they insisted to put solar energy as top priority project to minimize women efforts because of electricity problem .

Dasa Silovic Moderator

Thank you to all those who have contributed to this vibrant and enlightening discussion. I would especially like to thank colleagues from Iraq who have actively contributed. The discussion highlighted:

  • The importance of data disaggregation by gender, age and education as parameters for analysis, policies and implementation.
  • Use of technology, Internet and mobile phones is an important instrument for strategically improving governance and economic development. However, there are many obstacles to its broader use by women stemming from cultural (read patriarchal) barriers to lack of infrastructure, education/training and financial resources available to women.
  • A visible obstacle to women’s contribution to economic recovery is an issue of governance – legal provisions, property rights, lack of collateral and start up resources. Good examples exist with the engagement of government representatives, especially women, and CSOs in creating a conducive environment for women’s economic participation. Personal security often impedes their employment opportunities, for instance for returning women IDPs, e.g. https://www.ebrd.com/gender-strategy.html.
  • However, there are good examples of women’s participation in restoring infrastructure e.g. in Iraq (https://bit.ly/2LYI0o3 and https://bit.ly/2Xusvtr)
  • Key to women’s active participation in post-conflict recovery is to ensure their voices are heard and that they have a place at the decision-making table. This is a broader issue which will demand cross-referencing and linkages to the discussion on women’s participation in political decision-making and public affairs.
  • Community leaders have an important role to play in supporting women’s participation in community development and in creating conditions for their engagement. Legal literacy and information are important to allow women more stability when entering the employment and/or business sectors.
  • The ability of women to take family financial and economic decisions, particularly either in the absence of male heads of households or their incapacity, has increased during displacement conditions. This is an important dimensions of empowerment as women assume leadership impacting on their recognition in the community and status thereof. The international community should identify these “openings” and support.

Finally, allow me to end this segment of the discussion with a testimony from a woman from Bosnia and Herzegovina at an international conference last year in Sarajevo:

 … I am the personification of the generation of women who spent their twenties fighting the war, and our thirties and the forties were destroyed by our destructive state apparatus. The cantonal division (of our country after Dayton) led our people and the city to the brink of destruction. We have an administrative system in which we never belonged. We've become victims of bureaucratic and cantonal divisions. Entire families moved to larger cities, mainly to Sarajevo. Our villages are almost deserted. We have protected and raised our children during the war, we sacrificed to educate them to become academics, engineers, masters of science, doctors but we can no longer save them. Europe has opened its doors to them, and today they are like trapped chicks trapped in their own bird cage called homeland heading for a better future elsewhere. Ah Bosnia and Herzegovina. Will you, Bosnia and Herzegovina, assume responsibility and make life bearable for your men and women? Are our politicians, hiding behind national uniforms, continue to protect their interests and continue to enrich themselves at our expense? And what shall we do, a crippled generation? We have no spare life and time to correct mistakes that have been committed by others and by ourselves…”

 

I WISH YOU A HAPPY HOLIDAY AND ALL THE BEST IN THE CONTINUATION OF THIS IMPORTANT E-DISCUSSION

Farhat Asif

A Wonderful discussion indeed. I wonder if the discussion also shared insights from women from the regions like Afghanistan and Kashmir and finding perspectives about economic uplift or not. I would like to see that if anyone has not yet shared then I can volunteer sharing insights from the ground from these regions. 

swedi bilombele
It is me who thank you enough.
Klelija Balta Moderator

Eid Mubarak for those who celebrate!

Dear female and male colleagues, the second week of consultation has started. During the first week, every day, we had good responses from experienced and knowledgeable people and I hope we are going to continue this trend. Still there are questions that we have not tackled and also countries/regions that we did not hear from.  During the war in the former Yugoslavia, I was an activist in women's human rights, worked with traumatised and raped women and beside that I have experiences in civil society organizations, government, politics and the economy.  Women in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia and Slovenia did excellent and incredibly great work during and after the war. Later on I have learned, working in the UNDP regional Office in Bratislava as gender advisor (covering 24 countries), that the situation is similar all over the world!  Women are doing great work during crises and after crises and are ready and open for new knowledge. They are very flexible and resilient and adaptable for new situations, new jobs. But as soon as the crisis begins to lessen, they are being pushed to the "background" and some forces supported by conservative religions are pushing for them to “return home”. 

At that time we did not have UN SCR 1325.  But now we have, for over 20 years. 

I would like to ask, additionally to the questions at the beginning of the page, about  UN SCR 1325 Action Plans developed in your countries, or countries where you are (were) working. Have these countries developed plans? On what level were they developed – national or local, or both, or on the regional level? Did you use them during the COVID 19 period? If yes, was it functional? If not, what was needed to make them more useful? 

Now that the pandemic is slowly declining, can we pool gender disaggregated data on people who lost job during pandemic, or even now are losing jobs (some companies were supported by the governments during the pandemic, but now they are losing this support and they are firing people from the work)? Do we have data about families, in which both breadwinners lost their jobs during the pandemic? Has violence against women and children increased during the COVID pandemic. Did governments and civil society organizations act properly and in a timely way? What do we have to do to be better prepared in the future? What functioned and what did not function? Are there differences between women in urban and rural areas? Do we have data that shows these differences? Please feel free to write your opinion, suggestions, information, data and to help us together to make best use of UN SCR 1325.

د بثينة المهداوي

لعل العراق من الدول الاولى في الشرق الاوسط التي عملت على كاتبة خطة لقرار ١٣٢٥ وايضا كُتبت خطة طوارئ في ظل احتلال داعش لمناطق واسعه منه. بل ان بعض المحافظات العراقية شرعت لكتابة خطط خاصة بها في ضوء قرار ١٣٢٥.

كانت ديالى من المحافظات المتميزة في كتابة خطة خاصة بها في ضوء قرار ١٣٢٥ ، ففي عام ٢٠١٧ وبعد عمليات تحرير مناطقها من التنظيم الارهابي داعش، شرعت منظمة حواء وبدعم من كفينا تل كفينا السويدية على كتابة خطة طوارئ لقرار ١٣٢٥ خاصة بمحافظة ديالى، وحصلت هذه الخطة على موافقة ومصادقة الحكومة المحلية عليها (وكما مرفق لكم) بل الى تعميمها على الدوائر الحكومية في المحافظة.

الا ان تطبيقها توقف بسب عدم وجود ميزانية جندرية في المؤسسات الحكومية وكما تعرفون فان اي خطة او استراتيجية تحتاج الى المال لتطبيقها، وكذلك اعلان العراق سنة ٢٠١٨ عن كتابة خطة ثانية لقرار ١٣٢٥ كان ايضا احد اسباب عدم تطبيقها على ارض الواقع.

 

على الرغم من ان خطة ديالى افردت باب كامل للمراة الريفية وكيفية دعمها، اذ تمتاز محافظة ديالى بكثرة المناطق الريفية فيها

 

اتمنى ان يكون المرفق مفيد في هذا الجانب

د بثينة المهداوي

من المهم ان نتقاسم نقاط الاخفاق في تطبيق قرار ١٣٢٥ والذي حاز على دعم كبير لتطبيقه في العراق من الجهات الدولية المانحة، اذ شكل في العراق في السنوات الاخيرة (صندوق المراة للسلام والعمل الانساني). 

(WPHF)

وهو يمول المشاريع الخاصة بتنفيذ قرار ١٣٢٥ ولكن مع الاسف لم يمول هذا الصندوق السخي جدا جدا اي مشروع لدعم اقتصاد المراة بل اقتصر على التوعية فقط، ونجد ان التوعية لا تكفي لانجاح اي قرار دولي دون مناغمة الاقتصاد لانه عصب الحياة، وخاصة اذ ما تكلمنا عن رفع لاقتصاد المراة في مناطق النزاع او بعد الزاع، او اذ تكلمنا عن نساء نازحات اونساء عائدات لبيئة دمرت فيها البنى التحتية ودمرت فيها المنازل والمزارع. هنا لا فائدة من وجود التوعية او اقامة مجالس استشارية وانما نحتاج الى مشروع اقتصادي قائم بذاته ذات مردود اقتصادي ملموس للمراة

Laila Lutf Al thour

بالفعل هذا ما يحدث في اليمن حتى الان مناضرات وتوعية وندورات ولا انجازات على الارض رغم كل المحاولات من خلال الحوار الوطني والجهات  النسويو التابعة للدولة وايضا نحن كناشطات في المجتمع المدني وبناء السلام لا نجد الا تنفيذا صوريا للظهور في الاعلام رغم وجود قوانين تدعم المراة ولكن لا يتم تنفيذها ولم يتم مؤائمتها حتى الان بما يتناسب مع القرار 1325 حتى من قبل المجتمع الدولي الذي لا نجد منه اي دعم حقيقي لوجودنا كنساء على طاولات الحوار بشك فعال وايضا لا نجد اي مساندة للجهود التي نقوم بها محليا بل ويرفض مكتب المبعوث الاممي حتى الاعتراف بهذه الجهود او التعاون معها مما تسبب في ارتفاع نسبة رفض اطراف الصراع لوجود النساء في صناعة السلام في اليمن بل ومحاربة جميع من يطالبوم به واعتقالهم وتهديدم وبالتالي كان لذلك انعكاسا سلبيا كبيرا جدا في استهداف النساء بشكل عام ونشر وفرض هذه الجماعات المتشددة المسيطرة على مؤسسات الدولة لافكار متشددة ضد النساء العاملات بحجج مختلفة بل واستهدافهن بشكل مباشر .

نحن نؤمن بان دور النساء لن ينجح الا اذا وجدت المراة مساندة دولية حقيقية خاصة في المجتمعات التي تسيطر عليها الجماعات المتشررة فقد اصبحت كالمعرقة بين اما ان نكون كنساء ونحافظ على ما تم انجازة خلال عقود او تنتصر علينا هذه الجماعات وتعيد دولنا الى عصر الجاهلية  على مراى ومسمع من العالم .

ولذلك يسعدني جدا هذا الاهتمام من الامين العام والامم المتحدة للعمل على تعديل ووتعزيز دورنا عبر معرفة الوضع الحقيقي داخل دولنا منا نحن لان هذا هو الحل الحقيقي لايجاد حلول واقعية تساعد في انجاح هذا الدور

Klelija Balta Moderator

Thank you for sharing with us the Diyala Governorate Local Action Plan to support the implementation of Emergency Plan for UNSCR 1325. We can learn the most from these local action plans on gender relations  and women needs. The biggest effects can be achieved, not to make them as something “add on” but to incorporate them/local action plans  into local governments’ policies and strategies. Unfortunately these kinds of action plans are supported through different kind of projects and as soon as the project is over the activities rarely continue. So, one of the lessons learnt  is to do our best to mainstream gender equality throughout  governmental structures  and  that gender mechanisms and civil society organizations do that in close cooperation.

And yes, I agree with your comment - it is necessary to present both, successful and unsuccessful activities and plans. One of the world well-known business consultant and former tenured professor, Ichak Adizes, said that he personally gained his greatest knowledge by analyzing his failed companies and projects.

laila yemen

مرحبا بكم جميعا وسعيدة بان يتم مناقشة هذه النقاط الهامة بكل شفافية وواقعية لنتمكن من معرفة الخلل وتصحيحه فمن المعروف انه كلما زاد عدد مشاركة النساء في مراكز صنع القرار وصناعة السلام بشكل فاعل فان نسبة تطور النساء تصبح اكبر ومعرفة افض بحجم ونوع هذه الاحتياجات والذي للاسف لا يزال حاليا في مستواه الادني ,فبالنسبة لليمن فقد كانت تسير نحو تطبيق القرار1325 خلال مؤتمر الحوار الوطني الذي وضع العديد من القضايا الخاصة بالنساء وقامت اللجنة الوطنية للمراة ايضا بوضع تعديلات للقوانين الخاصة بحقوق المراة في العديد  من المجالات ولكن للاسف فقد حدث تدهور كبير في عملية التطبيق نتيجة للصراع في اليمن منذ العام 2014 مما ادى الى توقف تنفيذ مخرجات الحوار الوطني وايضا توقف المصادقة على تعديلات القوانين , وقد قامت منظمة ال يو ان وومن بانشاء التضامن النسوي لدعم مشاركة النساء ولكن للاسف لم يكن لذلك اثره المطلوب في تعزيز هذه المشاركة بشكل فعال على طاولات الحوار والذي للاسف اعتمد في انشائة على اشراك النساء المنظمات لنفس اطراف الصراع واقفال الباب امام الكثير من النساء الفاعلات والمؤثرات على ارض الواقع ليتمكن جميعا من مساندة بعضهن البعض والعمل على الحشد الجماهيري حول قضايا النساء وتغيير نظرة المجتمع حول حجم ونوع هذه المشاركات , مما ادى الى حدوث تراجع كبير في مستوى مشاركة النساء على كل الاصعدة ووفقا لدراسة قمنا بها في عدد من الوزارات الحكحومية ( التربية والتعليم - الشباب والرياضة- جامعة صنعاء ) فقد وجدنا بان الاطراف تقوم باعفاء العديد من النساء من مناصبهن واستبدالهن بالذكور او عدد محدود من النساء التابعات لكل مكون مع اقصاء جميع النساء الاتي لا يتبعنهم كما لا ننسى ان جميع النساء الاتي احلت للتقاعد حرمن تماما من رواتبهن نتيجة مصادرة جماعة الحوثي لجميع اموال صندوق التامين الاجتماعي وتوقف الحكومة الشرعية عن دعم هذه الفئة التي تضررت بشكل كامل بعد توقف صرف هذه الرواتب منذ مالايقل عن 6 اشهر من قبل الشرعية, اما فيما يتعلق بالفتيات في المدارس فقد ارتفعت نسبة المتسربات من التعليم نتيجة للفقر وعدم قدرة عائلاتهن من تحمل مصاريف الدراسة فتضطر الاسرة الى ايقاف البنات واستمرار الذكور , بل و قد ادى ذلك الى ارتفاع نسبة زواج الصغيرات وارتفاع نسبة العنف ضدهن بل وانتشار عصابات اختطاف لعدد كبير منهن في ضل سكوت مطبق من قبل السلطات وحكومات الامر الواقع والذ قمت انا بنفسي بمتابعة عدد من هذه القضايا وتعرضت للتهديد واطلاق الرصاص عند متابعتي لهذه القضايا وايضا متابعة قضايا الاعتقالات التي تتعرض لها النساء والناشطات مما ادى الى ارتفاع نسبة الخوف لدى النساء والناشطات من الخروج للعمل في مجالات السلام او الحقوق والحريات , بالاضافة الى الصعوبات الكبيرة التي تواجهها مالكات المشاريع الصغيرة الاتي افلست الكثير منهن نتيجة للقمع والتهجم على مشاريعهن واغلاقها من قبل سلطات الامر الواقع خاصة في الشمال و ايضا افلاس الكثير منهن حاليا نتيجة لانتشار مرض كوفيد 19 والذي اصبح يشكل خطرا كبيرا عليهن ويعرضعن اكثر للفقر والانتهاكات والاستغلال, كما لا ننسى بان صعوبة حصول النساء كسيدات اعمال لمشاريع متوسطة على الدعم المالي والتسهيلات لاقامة او استمرار اعمالهن وارتفاع نسبة الضرائب تحت العديد من المسميات ادت الى افلاس العديد منهن وايضا خوفا من عمليات التهجم عليهن دون مراعات لكونهن نساء وهذا ايضا شكل صعوبات كثيرة ادت الى افلاس هذه الاعمال   

Iman Abdualrahman

 

المحامية ايمان عبد الرحمن رئيسة معهد المراة القيادية ورئيسة الشبكة العراقيه لتنفيذ قرار مجلس الامن 1325

كون معهد المراة القيادية يدير شبكة متخصصه بهذا القرار وعليه فقد كان العراق من اوائل الدول التي وضعت خطة وطنية للقرار 1325 بشراكة حقيقيه بين الحكومة المركزيه وحكومة كردستان ومنظمات المجتمع المدني وكانت تحوي على 6 ركائز اساسيه وهي ( الوقاية –والحمايه –والمشاركة –والتمكين –والترويج مع المتابعه والتقيم –والموازنه ) وتم اقرارها في اوائل عام 2014 وقبل البدء بالتنفيذ كان لسيطرة داعش على ثلاث محافظات في العراق والانتهاكات الجسيمة التى تعرضت لها النساء مما تطلب الى عمل سريع لوضع خطة طارئة من اجل معالجة الوضع الصعب التى كانت تعيش به النساء بهذه المحافظات وتم اقرار الخطة في اوائل لسنة 2015 ولكن ومع الاسف بسبب الازمة الاقتصادية التى كان يمر بها العراق رفعت الموازنه من الخطة ولكن تم تعميمها على الوزارات من اجل وضعها قد التنفيذ من خطط الوزارات المعنيه وفعلا كان هناك استجابات متفاوته وضعيفة ولاسباب عدة لا يمكن ذكرها الان وهنا اود ان اوضح ان الخطة كانت على المستوى الوطني ولكن بدء المجتمع المدني بالتحرك وبقوة من اجل رصد وتقيم ما تم تنفيذة على مستوى الوزارت وكيف تم ادماج هذه الخطة مع خطط الوزارات

وبعمل استثنائي ومتفرد قامت الشبكة العراقيه للقرار 1325 بالعمل وبشكل سريع بتوطين الخطة الوطنية على المستوى المحلي حيث لاحظت ان تنفيذ الخطة الوطنية على المستوى المحلي غير مجدي وعليه عملت على وضع خطط للمحافظات الاكثر حاجة لهذا القرار بحيث تلامس احتياجات النساء الحقيقيه كل حسب طبيعه وظروف تلك المحافظات وفعلا تم التحرك بوضع اليات لعمل خطط للمحافظات ( البصرة –الديوانيه –السماوة –بغداد –ديالى ) وكانت التجربة الاولى بالشرق الاوسط ان يقوم العراق بوضع خطة وطنية وخطط محلية وتم المصادقة عليها من الحكومات المحلية بناء على النظام الامركزي في العراق ولكن لم يحالف هذه الخطط النجاح بالتطبيق ولاسباب عدة

وللعلم مدة الخطة 4 سنوات وقد انتهت المدة المحدةة لها وعلية قامت الحكومة العراقيه وبالشراكة مع منظمات المجتمع المدني ومن ضمنهم الشبكة العراقيه وبدعم UN WOMEN    2020-2024وتم اكمال الخطة وتم ارسالها الى امانة مجلس الوزراء للمصادقة ولكن بسبب الاحداث المتسارعه التى مر بها العراق من استقالة الحكومة بسبب الحراك المجتمعي ومن ثم جائحة كرونه مما تسبب بتاخير المصادقة عليها

هل تم تطوير الخطة الثانية نعم حيث استفاد العراق من تجربته الاولى وتجارب الدولة التى اقرت خطط وطنية منها الاردن وفلسطين ولبنان وتونس اما فيما يخص مدى الاستفادة او موائمة هذه الخطة من الوضع الراهن للنساء في ظل جائحة كرونا

الجواب نعم – من الممكن الاستفادة من الخطة من اجل معالجة تاثيرات جائحة كرونا على النساء كون ان بنود الخطة تعالج الكثير من المشاكل والتحديات التى مرت بها النساء في ظل سيطرة داعش اثناء او بعد وحسب اعتقادي ليس الامر الان مختلف حيث كانت الخطة تعالجل وضع النساء في حرب داعش والان نعالج وضع النساء بسبب وباء كرونا حيث ان الاحتياجات ما زالت هي نفسها والمشاكل التى ظهرت الان هي نفسها وتاثير داعش او جائحة كرونا اغلبها هي نفسها وعليه من الممكن ان نوائم الخطة على الوضع الراهن مع بعض التغيرات البسيطة

ومع هذا لا زلنا نرى ان التحديات ما زالت مستمرة مع غياب للبيانات والمعلومات المحدثة لللقضايا التى تخص المراة , والتحديات التي تعيق تقدم المرأة. وقد قام معهد المراة القيادية مسح الكتروني الى 2500 امراة في 5 محافظات في العراق واغلب هذه المحافظات قد عانت من احتلالها من تنظيم داعش والاثر الكبير الذي تركته على النساء والفتيات في تلك المحافظات حول وضع النساء وتاثير الحضر بسبب جائحة كرونا وفعلا كانت النتائج مؤثرة حيث كان تاثير الحضر على الاقتصاد في المرتبة الاولى ومن ثم التاثير النفسي والخوف والهلع هو الثاني والعنف المنزلي وزدياد الاعباء الاسرية على المراة وقلت التوعية بالفيروس – ونعدام الدعم بكل اشكاله لا من الاقارب ولا من الحكومة وكان للمنظمات دور كبير للعمل على سد بعض الاحتياجات الضروريه للعوائل الفقيرة والمحتاجة ولكن ومع الاسف لم تكن هناك اى خطة او تنسيق من اجل ان يكون العمل صحيح ومتكامل وعليه يجب علينا العمل وبشكل تضامني من اجل وضع حلول استثنائية وليسه تقليدية وبشكل سريع ومؤثر لمعالجة المشاكل التى ظهرت بسبب جائحة كرونه

 

Dasa Silovic Moderator

Raising the issue of COVID-19, thanks Klelija Balta, is very pertinent as we discuss resetting our societies. Therefore, there are three phases in dealing with the crisis: shock-therapy (lockdowns, medical/health security measures), recovery (immediate economic and social responses like financial transfers) and long-term strategic planning based on lessons learnt from this crisis and previous crises such as the 2008 financial and economic crisis. This is therefore an opportunity to integrate gender equality concerns (and indeed social concerns) into all three stages. 

This means gender sensitive budgeting, gender sensitive employment, but also women's security in crisis (e.g. women working in the service industry) and future infrastructure development. We should also look at the immediate financial transfers and who benefits from them - the big corporations, or the SMEs and women' businesses; are these addressing inequalities or perpetuating them; how will marginilised groups (like IDPs) and among them majority being women benefit? A lot has been said about VAW as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. But have there been measures or are we only stating the facts? 

So, resetting our societies and transforming our economies and public policies is something we need to embark on, and within it mainstream gender concerns and try to install measures to empower women. Our resilience toolbox is not enough. Challenging times, bold action!

Vildana

Ekonomska pozicija žena osobito u kriznim  i postkriznim situacijama je jako važna za osiguranje ravnopravnosti i rasta demokratskih vrijednosti u jednom društvu. Rado dijelim s vama jednu kratku Ekonomsku analizu koju sam napisala a tiče se pozicije žena u Bosni i Hercegovini za vrijeme pandemije COVID-19. Analiza pokazuje zaboravljenost žena -radnica od strane institucionalnih mehanizama, iako su žene iznjele i još saniraju teške posljedice pandemije izazvane corona virusom u BiH. Zanimanja (zdravstvo, trgovinsko-uslužne djelatnosti, hotelijerstvo i dr.) koja obiluju ženama usljed podijele rodnih uloga su najviše bili angažovana i pogođena ovom pandemijom, a uprkos tome kako se stanje s pandemijom jenjava tako se žene guraju u "ćošak". Većina njih prve ostaju bez radnih mjesta, prekovremeni rad im se ne plaća niti bilježi, uvijeti u kojima su radile i još rade su izvan interesovanja većinskih institucionalnih budžeta. Ovo je i praksa posle bilo kojeg oblika krize /ratna stanja, elementarne nepogode i dr./ da se ženini potenijali iskoriste, njezin rad i da se vrednovanje njihovih zasluga izostavi ili dodjeli muškim likovima. Rezolucija 1325 je jedan od izvrsnih mehanizama koji su izvukli žene iz sjene, ali ona je "suhi mehanizam" koji ne ostavlja mogućnost za pamćenje žena i njihovih doprinosa. Upravo sam završila jedna članak koji će biti uskoro objavljen, a tiče se deficitarnosti  sadržine Rezolucije 1325. Naime Rezolucija 1325 ne bilježi žensku kulturu sjećanja, dakle ona ne ostavlja prostor da se mirovnih dopirnosi žena pamte, a samim tim ni ženski doprinosi u ekonomskim oblastima.

Vildana Džekman, aktivistkinja, feministkinja Fondacija CURE 

Link: Bio za zapošljavanje kao spas ili utopija radničkih prava - http://www.fondacijacure.org/index.php?do=article&article_id=1154 

Klelija Balta Moderator

Dear Vildana,  dear CURE, thank you. There are not a lot of gender disaggregated statistical data that can be used for making meaningful recommendations and this kind of analyses, even covering the small area,  are very useful. Once again we witness that the best and faster achievements  can be done through  this kind of good and promptly cooperation between civil society organizations and gender institutions.  It could be interesting to visit the Official website of the European Union where the report: „How will the COVID-19 crisis affect existing gender divides in Europe?“ is posted ( https://bit.ly/2yFtkHz). The present report is a first attempt to assess potential consequences of the covid-19 outbreak on women and on gender equality in Europe. The report was produced in April 2020, with the aim of informing policy making about the possible impacts of the crisis. Timing does not allow for reporting about actual impacts, as there is hardly any data available on the topic yet. Instead, this work provides an overview of the status quo in some relevant aspects of gender inequalities before the crisis and makes informed predictions on what is likely to happen.

Mirko

Dead VIldana I could not agree more! There is a huge risk that, that no matter what 1325 and other acts are proclaiming, women could be left totally out of focus once again.

Average people are probably not aware of the importance of the women, and how are they are, or could be, contributing to the world economy (after all more than 50% of world population are women), especially in havoc situations, like COVID-19. I would like to say that, having in mind that most of the employees of the services which were most active during COVID-19 situation are women, in my opinion they were heroes and victims at the same time.

In times of crisis, women are saviors, it is enough to remember how much they contributed to the reconstruction of Yugoslavia economy after II World War.

 

Dasa Silovic Moderator

You can find the statement of the CEE Gender Network Issues on the effects of the COVID-19 crisis at:

https//:ceegendernetwork. eu

Klelija Balta Moderator

Vildana  Will send you in messanger :)

 

Elisabeth Duban

I am responding to some of the points and questions raised by Klelija Balta specifically about what we know of increases in violence against women during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as how civil society has responded.  Its something I have just begun to look at and have spoken to a few experts who work with survivors of domestic violence (mainly in the legal field)- in the UK, the US and Russia.  There has been quite a bit of information in the mainstream media about increasing rates of domestic violence during lockdown across Europe. Experts have said that the picture is not entirely clear yet- there have been waves of increased calls to telephone hotlines, but the pattern is quite variable, as have the people who have been calling (meaning, more calls from worried family members and potential abusers who are reaching out for help). Many issues have been raised over whether victims are able to access the range of services they need and even whether they are aware of the protections that are still in place to protect them. This has been an particular issue for women in Moscow who do not know whether they can leave their flats during lockdown if they need to escape violence- and whether they will be stopped by police and fined or assisted by them. Another point I can add is about civil society, which has been more proactive and effective in addressing the needs of women in situations of violence than the relevant government structures.  But civil society organisations are also struggling to deal with how to function in the new circumstances, and not all can easily transfer their work to online platforms. In the UK, there has been decent funding for CSOs that work on violence agasint women right now, and good community support, but its still too soon to say whether these lessons learned will lead to a better system of protection and response in the future.

swedi bilombele
Dear Sir/Madam, Greetings, The construction of gender identities differs widely among societies , with such factors as class, ethnicity ; religion , and the urban rural divide, being significant in the production of such differences . Common to virtually all communities is a set of gender identities privileging males over females. Gender identities play an important role at the local and international and national politics. It is hardly surprising, then that gender identities are also central to the development process. The current insistence by donors and international agencies on rising the term gender in development projects , however , is not so much an acknowledgement of this as an obscuring of it. Poverty , the pandemic disease, using the concept of gender identities construction to examine these development concerns makes it possible not only to deconstruction these problems but also to attempt to formulate an approach to improving the situation through transforming concepts if masculinity and feminine. The significance of the construction of gender identities for the three major development concerns and suggests how working with communities to empower them to conceptualize power relations, including gender identities , might affect significant improvements in each case to the solution of difficult development problems.
Iman Abdualrahman

المحامية ايمان عبد الرحمن / رئيسة معهد المراة القيادية

اود التعليق حول موضوع البلاغات التى تم استقبالها من النساء المعرضات للعنف المنزلي عن طريق الخطوط الساخنه التى تم الاعلان عليها من خلال كافة وسائل الاعلام الى جانب تم ارسال رسائل تبيليغ للنساء الاتي استفدنه من خدمة مراكز الدعم النفسي والقانوني التى يديرها معهد المراة القيادية وقد تلقى بلاغات كثيرة عن العنف المنزلي وقسم من هذه البلاغات كانت ترتقي الى جرائم خطيرة وعند الاتصال بمزودي الخدمات المتعاونيين مع المعهد مثل الشرطة المجتمعيه او قسم حماية الاسرة التابعه الى وزارة الداخليه كان اول طلب رفع شكوى رسميه عن طريق مراكز الشرطة من اجل اتخاذ ما يلزم ونحن في حضر وصعوبة التنقل مع عدم وجود محاكم تعمل في هذا الوقت ولكن بعد فترة تم تخصيص قاضي تحقيق في كل محكمة لاستقبال الشكاوى  من اجل اصدار امر بالتدخل وهذه اجراءات روتينيه صعبة تنفيذها مما يعرض النساء الى اتخاذ قرارا ماساويه للتخلص من المشاكل وكانت اغلبها هو الانتحار لهذا اثناء الحضر زاد وبشكل مطرد موضوع الانتحار ولم يقتصر على النساء بل حتى على الشباب ولهذا فعلا يجب وضع اليات استثنائيه وبشكل سريع من اجل الابلاغ الامن والتدخل قبل تفاقم المشاكل --- فعلا كان هناك اعباء كبيرة وقعت على كاهل المنظمات كونها القريبه الى المجتمعات الضعيفه والمهمشة ولكن نقص التمويل الى جانب قلة معرفة الكادر بتقديم الخدمات عن بعد ومع هذا كان هناك تعاون كبير ما بين المنظمات المحلية او الاقليمية للاستفادة من تجاربهم في بلدانهم او حتى المساعده بتقديم تدريبات اون لاين عن بعد للكادر وفعلا كان المعهد من اوائل المنظمات التى عملت على تقديم الدعم النفسي والاجتماعي والقانوني عن بعد وتمكنا من خلق شراكات مع جهات كثيرة وبطريقه سريعه وسهله ليس في مناطق محدده وانما شملت اغلب محافظات العراق والتي كان من الصعب تحقيقها بفترة قصيرة

Frances Guy Moderator

thanks Iman, the point about supporting small businesses is a very important one and exactly the type of issue this discussion is trying to highlight.  thanks for all your constructive points. 

Laila Lutf Al thour

فيما يتعلق بالمشاريع فقد فوجئنا بوجود مشاريع مدعومة من منظمات دولية  لشركات كبرى في اليمن بدلا من دعم المشاريع الصغيرة مثل المشاريع الصغيرة في واحدة من اغرب مشاريع الدعم التي رايناها ، لم يتم إجرائها النازحين فللاسف يوجد في اليمن حتى الان صعوبة في الحصول على قاعدة بيانات واضحة لهم وبالتالي حصولهم على الاغاثة اللازمة ،كما لا ننسى ان من اهم اسباب عدم حصول النازحين على الدعم المناسب هو وجود خطاء كبير عند وضع الخطط الخاصة بالاغاثة الانسانية في اليمن والتي لا نزال كمجتمع مدني نطالب بتغييرها كونها غير مرنة وتعتمد حتى الان على الدعم الغذائي كحالات طائة ولا ترتكز على التمكين خاصة في المناطق الاكثرامنا فوفقا للعديد من الدراسات التي نقدمها في منظمة سام في العديد من المحافظات ومخيمات النازحين اتضح لنا بانهم جميعا يطالبون بمشاريع التنمية بدلا من توزيع المعونات والاغاثات التي لا تصل اليهم نتيجة للفساد الكبير الذي يحدث في هذا القطاع وسيطرة الجماعات المسلحة وحكومات الأمر الواقع مما يؤدي إلى انتشار المجاعة بين النازحين وايضا المواطنين بشكل عام نتيجة انعدام الرواتب لكل موظفي الدولة في مناطق سيطرة الحوثيين في الشمال وحاليا انقطاعها في المحافظات الجنوبية أيضا نتيجة لسيطرة جماعة الانتقال على عدن ومؤسسات الدولة فيها

وفيما يتعلق بوضع النساء الاقتصادي فيما بعد وباء كوفيد 19 فقد اصبح الوضع اكبر تعقيدا كون الحكومات الامر الواقع وخاصة صنعاء تقوم باغلاق معظم المشاريع التي تمتلكها النساء وايضا تاثرت العديد من صاحبات للمشاريع الصغيرة كونهن في الغالب هن المعيلات لهذه الاسر،

كما تاثرت أيضًا الكثير من منظمات المجتمع المدني المحايدة والمستقلة التي تقودها النساء رغم أعمالهن القوية الا انهن اصبحن غير قادرات على الصمود امام كل هذه التحديات ،وتوفير الميزانيات التشغيلية لاعمالهن وبقاء منظماتهن خاصة في ضل استمرار المنظمات الدولية في تصعيب دخول تلك المنظمات في شراكات رسمية معها رغم كبر نسبة الاحتياج وهذا بالطبع له تاثيرات سلبية متمثلة ب:

- عدم قدرة المنظمات الدولية على تغطية نسبة الاحتياج لدى الفئات المستهدفة في شتى المجالات

- انتشار الفساد بشكل كبير لدى المنظمات المحلية والدولية في اليمن نتيجة لاحتكار المشاريع والدعم الدولي

- اغلاق العديد من المنظمات والموظفين النسوية الناجحة في اليمن نتيجة لقلة الدعم وعدم قدرتهن على تغطية النفقات التشغيلية للاستمرار في العمل وتقديم الخدمات 

- ارتفاع نسبة طمع حكومات الامر في الدعم المالي الدولي وسيطرتها عليه وفرض منظمات خاصة وتابعة لها الشراكة مع المنظمات الدولية لتتمكن من السيطرة على هذه الدعومات التي تحرر المنظمات المحمان المنظمات المحايدة منها و 

Kika Babic-Svetlin, AGE BiH

Greetings to all, from Bosnia and Herzegovina. We would like to thank Klelija for the welcoming note and we are happy for the opportunity to share some of our views and experiences.

Bosnia and Herzegovina, as presented in UN Global Study on UNSCR 1325, has used National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 as a platform to provide a gender-responsive approach to emerging security threats and challenges, such as natural disasters, increasing violent extremism among all ethnic groups, potential migration crises, healthcare threats such as current CIVID-19 pandemic.

Introducing the concept of human security, as a strategic goal in BiH NAP, offers a new lens for government agencies and officials in dealing with any form of intimidation and threats to security.

It is important to say that being able to rely on effective public policy, it was easier to initiate and implement certain measures in order to address consequences of the COVID- 19 pandemic and provide new or reallocate certain existing funds. In our experience, basing the justification for these measures on the NAP was of vital importance.

In order to address the economic consequences for women and girls caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Agency for Gender Equality has undertaken some steps to analyse both immediate and targeted needs of the NVOs and other organisations which are actively working in the area of the economic empowerment of women in BiH. Evidently, women in employment today face additional challenges at work as well as in the private sphere because many communal services - from healthcare to public transport, food supply and kindergarten services, have been restricted or ceased to function normally.

The Agency for Gender Equality of BiH issued a set of recommendations for the integration of the perspective of gender equality in the process of planning, making and implementing decisions, measures and plans in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, including measures for gender-responsive economic recovery. Recommendations were submitted to all levels of governments in BiH, civil protection staffs and crisis staffs of ministries of health at all levels of government. We recommended that employers, considering the unpaid work that women have to complete at home, adjust working hours and adequately valorise the additional engagement and responsible role that women play in the current struggle against the pandemic.

swedi bilombele

Thank you very much your content was wall understood and noted. well mentionned.

Warm regards

M. Crispin

Klelija Balta Moderator

Thank you Kika Babic-Svetlin, AGE BiH, it is important to know that NAPs can be useful and used in addressing sudden crisis situations such as COVID-19.And this can serve as good example of government- CSOs cooperation. Would you be so kind to share with us link  "Set of Recommendations" or to attach document. Please if you have an English version. Thanks

Tajma Kapic AGE BiH

Hello everyone and thank you for your interesting and constructive comments. I agree with several previous comments about the importance of cooperation with NGOs and civil society groups which are working with issues economic empowerment of women.  In early April 2020, AGE BiH has disseminated a questionnaire to nongovernmental organisations, women’s networks as well as associations of women entrepreneurs in BiH with the aim to exchange information and try to ascertain the needs of women and girls regarding the economic hardships caused by the crisis.

Analysing their responses, we identified some of the most important needs related to the economic empowerment of women when dealing with consequences of COVID 19. Following are examples of the responses we received:

  • Adopt a set of measures for the economic empowerment of women to overcome the effects of the COVID 19 pandemic, with particular sensitivity to marginalised groups of women and women survivors of domestic violence. This set of measures should be included in the Strategy for Employment in order to provide incentives for women for employment and self-employment. Special attention should be paid to women members of marginalised groups and emergency measures should be put in place for the creation of Children Allowance Fund.
  • A special fund should be established to help women entrepreneurs whose businesses suffer as a result of COVID-19 pandemic, Also, establish an advisory team for women entrepreneurs and those trying to save their jobs.
  • Emergency support for women who have lost their jobs as one-off payment or assistance in paying the minimum wage for a period of 3 months; recording and analysis of women who have lost their jobs; provision prequalification and education through online courses, implementation of women's entrepreneurship programs through Employment Services.
  • Financial support for vulnerable groups, such as Roma women in order to re-start their work or income generation activities in which they are engaged.
  • Determine to what extents the Gender Responsive Budgeting is introduced in budgets, conduct gender analysis of budgets and allocate funds which would be used to alleviate economic hardship caused by COVID 19 pandemic.
  • Provide psychological and health assistance to women, including provisions for sexual and reproductive rights of women.

 

Klelija Balta Moderator

Dear [~92957] this is great, clear and to the point. Thank you.

Nejira Nalic McCarrick

Dear All,

I agree with everything women from Bosnia and Herzegovina have said. It would be good to raise couple of points, too:

- networking, collaboration, empathy - it would be truly beneficial if we were to work together, create networks through meetings, exchange, common activities - for common interests; that network should be used to create pressure and advocate for women's issues = this require trust and tidious and long term work with each other to create trustworthy representation;

- promoting good examples: promote women who are successful, who are examples of good practice and who can become mentors to those who are starting up and/or trying to improve their activities - business, jobs, households;

- mentoring - a network of women who are educated mentors - pool of resources available, structured, promoted, so women know who and how to contact;

- attract funding to create a fund to support women - creating foundation for women that delivers grants for women who are to start up their economic activities, improve their activities, create businesses and jobs; this funding could be used in economic turmoils to support women who have difficulties sustaining their businesses and/or jobs;

- attract (private) investment fund for women in business;

My experience tells me that women are resilient and that with little support they create long lasting and positive impact.

Best regards, Nejira

Klelija Balta Moderator

Dear Nejira good to hear from you. Your experience and work with women start-ups and women in business were always very useful, thank you.

Melissa Johnston
  1. How do women prioritise for economic reconstruction?

While the Women Peace and Security Agenda has made great strides in enhancing women’s participation and protection, it has neglected to address the political economy of gender inequality in fragile and conflict-affected societies, which exacerbates conflict and undermines efforts to “build back better.” The key point is that economic reconstruction is not separate from social reconstruction. Gender sensitive economic reconstruction includes:

  • securing women’s social and economic rights; bringing a gender perspective and women’s participation into economic recovery (reforms and reconstruction projects). Gender equity needs to be considered. For example, in Sri Lanka A critical issue was women’s insecure livelihoods, particularly seasonal and insufficient incomes. Women were unemployed or participated in activities such as cleaning and processing fish, farming, apparel manufacturing, construction, and day labor work where they earned less than men for the same work (Gunawardana 2018)
  • integrating gender budgeting within post-conflict financing;
  • transforming reparations and transitional justice (including responsiveness to conflict-related sexual violence survivors and to victims of conflict-related violations of socioeconomic or ‘subsistence’ rights, Lai forthcoming) to empower women economically (True and Hewitt 2019: 181).
  • Securing women’s political participation. In conflict affected Sri Lanka, for example, women’s narratives framed participation within the context of the everyday insecurities engendered through economic vulnerability, gender norms, and SGBV. Women’s engagement with their respective community organizations included garnering support for women’s political participation, economic empowerment, psychosocial support for women in the post-war period, and savings help groups.

https://www.unwomen.org/-/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/csw/64/egm/true%20jexpert%20paperdraftegmb25ep13.pdf?la=en&vs=1128.

  • Social reproduction, the reproduction of human beings and social life, largely unpaid and unmeasured – is a key and overlooked part of economic reconstruction. Reconstruction needs to grapple with how women support daily needs. Social infrastructure is needed to support social reproduction (Rai, True and Tanyag 2019).
  • In Sri Lanka, rural women drop out of agricultural activities and take up home based activities owing to care duties when their children are aged between 0-5 years (when they start school). But they engage in home gardening for survival, and most of the home-based activities are not sustainable. However, they need the income which they spend mainly on their kids, small consumables and food.

https://www.monash.edu/sustainable-development/networks-and-partnerships/oxfam-monash-partnership/research/gender-equality/gender-in-sri-lanka

  • Economic reconstruction needs to support collective action through unions and other forms of worker organizing for women employed in the formal sector. This has had success in post-conflict reconstruction. In Sri Lanka, post-conflict period and regime change opened up the space for women workers and activists in Free trade zones and tea estates to form and strengthen cross-ethnic alliances to advocate for better working conditions. They seek to emphasize the common experience of class, gender, and global/local capital, as a means to address ethnic difference and tensions. Collective action takes the form of symbolic performance such as attending May Day rallies or International Women’s day events, research and documentation, exchange visits, solidarity support (Gunawardana, Forthcoming)
  1. What are the differences between women’s perspectives and existing state and international models that are often instituted post-conflict? 

Women often have a very different perspective to international models on the economic reconstruction institute post conflict.

  • A gender perspective highlights, for example, structural gender inequality and the continuation of wartime violence as gender-based violence inside the home.
  • Ignoring social reproduction (care work) in policy settings can increases women’s burdens and exposure to violence post conflict. Women’s role in social reproduction exposes them to greater labour burdens and to gender-based violence when their work inside the home is undervalued, unpaid and unsupported by economic policy. As the post-war Sri Lankan case demonstrates, it is important to recognise the ways in which care work changes through the life course and to design appropriate interventions and policies that take life course stages into account, including the “marriage penalty” (World Bank 2019)

https://www.monash.edu/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/1802052/Research-report-1_2018.pdf

  • This leads to the physical, social, psychological, and emotional “depletion” of women

https://www.monash.edu/arts/gender-peace-security/news-and-events/articles/a-regenerative-state-or-business-as-usual 

  • Links between women’s’ roles as carers and the economy are routinely ignored by policymakers in post war reconstruction. Ignoring care work threatens to destabilize carefully planned peace processes because it neglects the work that goes into reproducing individuals, families and societies, which is so fundamental to post-conflict recovery.
  • Women were excluded, for example, from crisis recovery planning from the South Asian Tsunami in Aceh and Sri Lanka. The absence of women from pre and post-disaster policymaking is a problem in and of itself but crucially it leads to gender-blind compensatory, housing and rebuilding programmes that in turn, may exacerbate violence against women and girls.  (True 2013)
  • Expertise in social areas of the economy, where there are many women experts with gender perspectives (social work, domestic violence, child care, education, health, housing, disabilities) need to be consulted and included in the early phases of post-conflict recovery, rather than prioritising gender-blind perspectives in areas like finance, treasury, and defense.
  1. What good examples are there that have led to increased participation of women in the economy and in economic decision making, including eg rebuilding priorities? What worked? What didn’t work? 
  • Increasing women’s economic participation and power in economic decision making requires investment in social infrastructure such as healthcare, education, childcare and local transportation. These sectors are vital for supporting social reproduction and critical for economic growth.

https://wbg.org.uk/analysis/investing-care-emerging-economies/

  • The concept of a “regenerative state” would address gender disparities as it develops policies to recover economies and social life. The regenerative state comprises three elements: social infrastructure rather than just infrastructure related to the physical, built, and resources environment; the second intends to facilitate and be open to a politics of dialogic, deliberative, and participative conversation across conflict lines, involving inclusive processes and all stakeholders; and the third element aims to incorporate accountability mechanisms.

 

  • Childcare ought to be seen as a sector for investment contributing to peacebuilding, enabling employment and professionalization, and education. As studies of Bosnia-Herzogovina show, the erosion of childcare provision has increased gender and class inequality

 

https://wilpf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Feminist-political-economy-ENG-FINAL.pdf

 

  • Yet, in conflict-affected countries such as Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ukraine, social infrastructure and public expenditure often deteriorate at the same time as care needs increase – including among injured and disabled people and displaced communities. These shifts place greater demands on women to increase their paid and unpaid work. In reality, cost-cutting by states in social services and support mechanisms translates to 'transferring the costs to women.'

https://www.ppesydney.net/gendering-crisis-scandalous-economics-reviewed/

  • The voice and representation of women in labour markets is crucial. Increased participation  in labour markets alone should not be the only measurement of success.  In the example of the integration of displaced women into global supply chains we need to look at the gender dynamics of the links between forced displacement and export-oriented employment. There are important connection between the the formation of labour markets and households and communities in border towns and refugee camps. Conflict also conditions the techniques employed by management to gain consent and control in the labour process. At the level of ideology, past patterns of ‘feminization’ in conflict zones are replicated in export processing zones, both employing women and feminizing ‘others’ (such as refugee men) by devaluing work carried out in these sectors (Gunawardana 2018).
  • Women’s employment in export orientated industries is often seen as empowering because it offers employment, changes to labour laws and rights may weaken women’s rights and collective rights.
  • What doesn’t work to expand women’s economic empowerment is debt-financed recovery. Private debt should not be used to force the poor to pay for public goods like water. Increased costs of public goods transfer burdens to women, making economic recovery harder (Mader 2013)

http://www.mpifg.de/pu/mpifg_dp/dp11-14.pdf

  • Microfinance or other financial inclusion measures are often seen as a quick, and gender sensitive fix for post conflict economies. Microfinance programs targeting poor women are considered a ‘prudent’ first step for international financial institutions seeking to rebuild post conflict economies. International financial institutions continue to visibly support microfinance despite evidence and growing consensus that microfinance neither reduces poverty nor breaks the cycle of domestic violence. (Johnston 2020; True and Hozic 2020). Rather, by injecting high volumes of liquidity and interest into already crisis prone economies, financial crises and the flow on effects of violence are more likely.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09692290.2020.1733633?journalCode=rrip20

  1. How can we ensure that rapid economic recovery increases women’s economic opportunities? What specific measures have worked? What obstacles have you met?
  • Short Term: Identifying vulnerable populations, including women at risk of domestic and gender based violence. Including women’s shelters in emergency plans, economic rebuilding plans  (True 2013 and UNWomen 2020)
  • Medium to long term policy needs to focus on supporting all areas of the economy, not only finance, construction, or other male dominated sectors but also female-dominated service and knowledge-based sectors such as education, health, tourism, retail etc.
  • Access to land and land reform is often a key area of national and international intervention in post conflict settings. More than do no harm, interventions need to highlight women’s right to inheritance, joint ownership, and right to own land. International interventions aimed at formalising land law should avoid cadastre systems that prioritise male headship and ownership, and limit the use of land as collateral for lending, when that lending is high risk or high interest.
  • Banking and finance reform must to do more than simply include women. It needs to acknowledge men and women’s differential interests in credit, debt, and savings. Women are better at paying back loans, for instance, because they can face greater pressure from friends, society, male loan collectors, or their husbands.
  • Civil society organisations may reject aspects of donor driven women’s economic empowerment discourse. One group working with ASEAN criticised the idea that jobs for women necessarily increased women’s empowerment, and instead suggested that the expansion of multinational companies in the region may dis-empower women through increasing precarious work (Gerard, forthcoming)
  • In the long term, economic planning might consider policy measures such as Universal Basic Income, a Green New Deal, or gender sensitive production cooperatives.
  • The knowledge base of universities may be key resource to draw on for long term planning, rather than institutions and knowledge located inside the market that have fiduciary, rather than public good, responsibilities.

https://www.ppesydney.net/beyond-the-global-coronavirus-crisis-austerity-or-recovery/

6. Was there any outside support that was particularly important? Are there lessons to learn from the timing of that support? What support might have helped but wasn’t forthcoming? 

  • The Women’s Peace and Humanitarian Fund (WPHF, formerly the Global Acceleration Instrument) addresses financing gaps and under-resourcing of women’s humanitarian and peace-building efforts across the peace and security and development continuum, but it is still far too meager to resource women’s peacebuilding in all conflict-affected situations globally. For example, the WPHF has invested in women’s active engagement in economic recovery efforts in Colombia under the 2016 peace agreement was targeted at women. Women likewise participated in the national development plan, but the benefits flowing to women were very limited.

https://www.unwomen.org/-/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/csw/64/egm/true%20jexpert%20paperdraftegmb25ep13.pdf?la=en&vs=1128.

8. Can new technologies help women’s empowerment in recovery situations? If so, how? Can they help ensure inclusion?

  • Technology can be used to help organise collective action, to document abuses at work, and provide eyewitness accounts of conditions and abuses inside workplaces.
  • Technology may help women with everyday life, or with access to communication to seek help when exposed to violence, for example. However, mobile technology ay also enable surveillance of women (GBV, stalking), or digital abuse, or the sexualisation of young girls.
  • In terms of economic recovery, much is made of digital payment systems, but the evidence on the positive effect of these on women’s empowerment, or poverty reduction is limited. Rather, digital financial inclusion increases transaction costs and enables more targeted selling to the poor and very poor through big data.

https://nextbillion.net/why-the-crusade-against-cash-isnt-clearly-pro-poor/

9. How can we ensure that the needs and views of the most marginalized are included? What good examples are there of including disabled women, LGBTQI communities?

There is a need to ensure worker representation voice. Ensure collective voice in structures including, trade unions, tripartite forums,  governance over natural resources (including by indigenous groups) and ensuring the participation and voice of collectives of informal sector workers

10. What role can data play in improving women’s participation in the economy and in economic decision making?

  • Gender disaggregated data is still lacking in many areas of economic decision making and hinders women’s participation.
  • Counting care work can improve recognition of women’s existing economic participation – (Waring 1990)
  • In both relatively peaceful and conflict-affected: the labour of ‘care’ is always in demand, but typically unrecognized, undervalued and unsupported. That means moving beyond measuring just GDP. Tools like Satellite Accounts or Household and Labour survey analysis shows how unpaid work accounts for a huge part of the economy: for example, in 2016, unpaid household service work in the UK was valued at US$1.54 trillion - nearly two thirds of the country’s GDP.
  • Data on Violence Against Women has been a key part in improving policy responses to it. Knowledge on the prevalence and costs of VAW have been instrumental in changing policy settings, including financial support for victims, changes to privacy laws, and public funding for women’s shelters
  • Digital technology is hailed as an important tool for empowering the poor, with lower costs and greater connectivity allowing better access to health services, education facilities, financial services and connecting women to labour markets. Women have far less access to this digital technology in developing world (Fatehkia, Kashyap and Weber 2018)
Caitlin Williscroft Moderator

Thanks for your detailed response, Melissa. It is also helpful that you shared several resources in the public domain..

A follow up to your response to question 6 - what recommendations do you have to broaden the reach and impact of support (as you note in the Colombia case that women participated in the National Development plan, but that the benefits flowing to women were limited)?

 

Melissa Johnston

Hi Caitlin. It's great to be a part of the discussion. In regards to your question, as demonstrated by our research, the support needs to be at a greater scale to match the commitments in the 2016 peace agreement as well as connected to the Plan Marco implementation plan for the PA and its monitoring framework. Timing – to show early implementation of key provisions in the agreement - and also the amount of support matters – as do the implementation mechanisms. The Colombian government has assumed that the international community will fund and support commitments with regard to gender equality and women’s participation in rural development and other chapters of the agreement. Funding from donors in the multi-donor UN trust fund should be structured explicitly to leverage/incentivise national government commitments on gender equality.

Crystal Washington

I'm especially interested in gaining insights into #8. 

T.M. Curry

Particularly in the African context, these questions are best posed to the local population. Outside professionals can wax poetic about recommendations, but local organizations working directly with women and those women themselves are in the best position to advise on the types of economic activities that will lead to economic recovery post-Covid. Their opinions should not just be included, but rather they should lead the discussion and strategy. The role of outsiders should be supportive.

Vincent Chambati

Hi,

As a male living in South Africa and Zimbabwe my perspective is that women have tended to be an after thought when it comes to including them in decision making. There are however pivotal at a community level and instrumental at planning the grassroots initiatives. The hurdles occur at national level where recognition is usual placed with males. The barriers to entry at his level are usually cultural as well as formal as a lot of the women do not formal qualifications. Outside organisations tend to perpetuate this stance by only wanting to engage with the educated class which tends to be the spouses of those already in power. There is very little deep engagement with women of lower socio-economic status. Within South Africa the post-conflict reconstruction definitely included women within the decision making bodies and the policies set in place promote women engagement. These however do not make the average women feel empowered as the gate keepers to these positions tend to still be men. What I believe would work is setting up organisations that only interact with women and make it a focus point to only deal with community based groups and not ones at a national level. 

Dishani

I agree with you, Vincent. The tokenistic approach to diversity and inclusion will do more harm than good.

John Ede

Give women seats at the decision table, make their participation in the peace process as mandatory, fund only programs that have gender mainstreaming, let women channel how they want to manage the post conflict context.

Kenna Williams

Great discussion here. How do we get women in the room....into the rooms where decisions are being crafted and policies/protocols are made law? Should we as women force ourselves into these rooms or create new avenues for ourselves in terms of this economic reconstruction? These questions require movement on all levels and a collective force to recognize the strength of women. 

Eleanor Khupe

What good examples are there that have led to increased participation of women in the economy and in economic decision making, including eg rebuilding priorities? What worked? What didn’t work? 

In 2018, the Zimbabwe Women's Microfinance Bank (ZWMB) was launched. Women in Zimbabwe had historically had little to no access to funding and the aim of the bank is to provide easily accessible loans at preferential rates, women centred financial products and services as well as training in basic financial literacy. Women  make up 52% of the Zimbabwean popuplation and contribute immensely to the economy and the bank was created to drive women's financial inclusion. By December 2019, the bank had disbursed $16million to 46 000 beneficies and the goverment allocated $100 million to the ZWMB in it's 2020 budget. 

This is a good example of one of the ways in which women's participation can be increased in the economy and in economic decision women - providing women with the funding, skills and capacity to own and run their own businesses/money making projects. It is too early to tell how well the bank has worked/if it didn't work, but it certainly is a step in the right direction. 

 

Titilola

Decisions on economic priorities before, during, and after conflict are often linked to political decision-making structures, but not always. Key economic decisions on physical rebuilding priorities, and on creating or recreating economic activity can too easily end up being taken by patriarchal power structures that existed pre-conflict which do not help sustain progress towards transitional justice. We are looking for ideas on how to change pre-conflict structures, how to ensure women are at the forefront of key economic decisions and to highlight what has worked on the ground in conflict and post-conflict situations.

Seniha Ayse Orellana

Thank you for inviting me to share my thoughts. It is a privilege to participate in this group to learn from you all. These are such important discussions to have and learn from each other.

In my experience, inclusion of women in the post conflict economic decision making is central to addressing the practical and strategic needs of women impacted by conflicts. It also offers an opportunity to address the structural problems of gender inequality prior, during and after the conflicts.  Equally important is to note that women’s participation is important not only important for economic recover and growth alone but also for sustainable peace and development. Research shows that economic and financial inclusion of women can help unlock the potential for women’s businesses and small enterprises, which can then help reduce poverty of women and their families and increase their resiliency to income shocks, crises, and other challenges. Sustainable peace and development cannot take place unless gender inequality is addressed. Women Peace and Security Index, developed by Georgetown Institute for Women Peace and Security (GIWPS), where I am currently affiliated with, have investigated the relationship between gender inequality and likelihood of conflict, and the correlation is striking. Therefore, investing in women’s economic empowerment is extremely important for post-conflict recovery in general and for gender equality in particular.

 

However, women continue to face obstacles in economic opportunities everywhere. A 2018 report on “Women’s Financial Inclusion and Economic  Opportunities in Fragile and Conflict Affected States” published by GIWPS, (at https://giwps.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Womens-Financial-Inclusion-and-Economic-Opportunities-in-Fragile-and-Conflict-Affected-States.pdf) found that there are significant gaps and challenges in terms of economic opportunities for women around the globe and these gaps are even larger in fragile and conflict effected countries.  For example, these countries have extremely low employment rates for women where they are paid while they carry the burden of household care and unpaid work. (GIWPS report also provides examples of successful programs from a number of different contexts.) They often have less control over poverty and financial accounts. In addition to challenges such as poverty, lack of education, gender-based violence and gender-based discrimination, women in conflict and post-conflict contexts face additional challenges some of which include insecurity, displacement, trauma as a result of losing their loved ones, among others. Because of the social, legal, and institutional challenges they face, women often rely on informal financial services. Many of them may have not had the opportunity to receive formal education, or maybe not be able to read or write.

Post-conflict environments can offer opportunities for us to address systemic gender inequalities and create an economic recovery process that fosters gender equality, which will then contribute to overall peace and stability in the society  Also, new roles and opportunities often open up to women when conflict upends the existing social order and can help us some of the challenges women face in their communities.

In order to address these challenges and create new opportunities for women there is a need understand the needs and priorities of women with a sensitivity to their unique contexts.

In addition to addressing structural, systemic challenges, there is also a need to understand how technology and innovation can help empower women economically. In many contexts access to technology have been a major factor helping women develop their own businesses and improve their economic prospects. Therefore investing in technology and developing new products and delivery tools to help women develop, maintain and manage their businesses is an important area to focus on in my opinion. For example, cell phones, mobile money options, digitize payments can accelerate women’s economic empowerment in entrepreneurship, business and agriculture, among others, especially in post-conflict contexts where mobility may pose a security challenge for some women.

 

Addressing these challenges and developing programs that help address women’s practical and strategic needs require inclusion of women at the post-conflict decision making levels. Rather than top-down approaches, it is important to include women from the local communities to participate in decisions that will have a significant impact on their lives is central. Taking part at the decision-making level is extremely important for the recovery programs to understand and incorporate women’s priorities, challenges they face. Women’s participation is required at all stages of decision making: Planning, design, implementation, evaluation of the programs. women’s voices need to be included especially in the budget discussions where budgets are decided, how the resources will be distributed.

It is equally important to recognize that women are not homogenous groups. There are diverse groups of women representing different ethnic, religious, racial groups with different needs and experiences. For example, women in urban areas and rural areas often have different priorities and needs. The intersection of different identities (such as gender, race, religion, class etc.) often result in women having significantly different needs and vulnerabilities as well as different levels of access to resources, status, and power in their communities. Women may have different needs and priorities. It is important to identify women’s goals in each context and carefully consider the conflict drivers and connector with a do no harm perspective. This requires not only conducting a thorough gender analysis but also a sound do no harm analysis before developing programs.Therefore, women at the decision-making level need to reflect these different groups who may have different priorities and needs.

Building women’s capacity in areas of financial literacy, negotiations, access to credit and other financial resources are also central for women to participate meaningfully in the decisions that will have impact on their lives.

Dishani

You have raised a valid point, Seniha. Women are not a homogenous group and have varied interests and are differentially impacted by many forces including gender, class, and ethnicity.

Anonymous

The current pandemic has significantly underscored economic inequalities with regard to access for specific ethnic groups in addition to widening the gender equity gap that has been in play for centuries. Companies looking to recover must pivot in ways that are transformative using this time of reemergence to rebrand using talent resources that are gender inclusive given the new pool available.

Dishani

Hi everyone

I hope you all are having a great day.

I'm Dishani Senaratne from Sri Lanka. Here are my thoughts:

1. Giving women a greater role in post-conflict economic reconstruction should be done very cautiously, taking into account the existing local dynamics. In most contexts, women’s issues are seen as problems which are unique to women. In reality, targeting women will benefit not merely women but also men and children as well. This point needs to be clearly communicated to the wider society.   Since the 2000s, the female population of Sri Lanka has exceeded their male counterparts. Sadly, this growing trend of increase in female population is not a reflection of the economic, political and social participation and leadership of women. With the outbreak of Covid-19, economic resilience of women has come to the fore. However, priority should be given to economic empowerment of women during times of crisis.

2. In 2009, in the aftermath of the decades-long civil war between the government forces and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), massive infrastructure projects were carried out with little community participation by the then government in the North and parts of the East, ostensibly to improve the living conditions of the war-affected. This was a conscious attempt taken to reinforce the idea that the absence of war precipitates peace. The war-affected women were excluded from the process of reconstruction, regardless of their ethnic and faith backgrounds.

3. In post-conflict Sri Lanka, hair and beauty industry has rapidly moved forward, creating employment opportunities for women, especially in rural areas.   Women’s economic independence has primarily boosted their interest in enhancing their physical appearance. As most salons are patronizied by women, it is seen as a safe space for women to earn a living. However, many women, including non-wage-earning housewives, are pressurized to maintain their physical appearance, making them spend a considerable amount of money on salon services and personal care products. According to a recent Nielsen Co. report, lifestyle and personal care products make up Sri Lanka’s fastest-growing consumer products. Against this backdrop, hair and beauty industry has created job opportunism for women while disproportionally making an impact of spending/saving habits of women.   

4. The previous government launched two flagship economic development programs, Enterprise Sri Lanka and Gamperaliya in mid-2018 with the aim of creating 100,000 entrepreneurs by 2020. Under Enterprise Sri Lanka, the government claimed to offer 15 loan schemes under the categories of; interest subsidy loan schemes, donor funded refinance loan schemes and financial and non-financial support programmes. They intended to address each section of business sector and society from agrarian based loans to women and youth. The Gamperaliya programme has had Rs 80 billion allocated for it and each electorate was to be given Rs 50 million for the next two years for the development of water tanks, anicuts, green parks, to set up free-wifi, rehabilitate small religious places, village roads, to provide sanitary facilities to schools and to develop village schools.

5. The impact of these economic initiatives, especially on female-led enterprises, was highly anticipated. However, with the regime change in 2019, the said programmes have reportedly come to a standstill. This was another case of policy change owing to regime change that was a testimony of ad hoc governance in the Sri Lankan context.

6. Under the above mentioned programmes, women were seemingly targeted for the sake of inclusion and diversity. According to anecdotal narratives, I was told by many women budding entrepreneurs that the male banking staff was less supportive to them. Having a female officer to deal with women would have worked in most cases. At present, the outbreak of Covid-19 has jettisoned these issues.  

8. Given the current pandemic, shifting to online mode is imperative. Yet, no woman (or man) should be left behind due to their limited knowledge/access of/to internet. As nearly half of Sri Lanka’s population don’t use smart phones (according to a 2019 study published by LIRNEasia), rural women lack technical skills and connectivity with the outside world even if they want to engage in some income generating activity.

9. According to the Census of Population and Housing (2012), 1,617,924 million (or 87 per every 1000 persons aged five and above population in the country) have either partial or full difficulties in seeing, hearing, walking, cognition, self-care or communication. Several policies and legislation to support persons with disabilities have been enacted or adapted in the last 25 years. Yet, the share of population economically active (i.e., either employed or unemployed) was much less for those with difficulties, compared to those without difficulties. Inclusion of persons with difficulties in employment can start with the public sector.

In 2016, Sri Lanka’s Supreme Court condemned the current penal codes criminalizing same-sex relations; however, the laws remain on the books. These laws, in addition to Sri Lanka’s vague Vagrancy Ordinances, provide legal coverage for police targeting, harassment, and extortion of LGBTIQ people. In such context, there is a long way to go to achieve LGBTQI in the Sri Lankan context.

10. In 2019, the Economic Reforms and Public Distribution Ministry established an Analytics Unit to drive forward data-based policymaking. This is a crucial first step as Sri Lanka’s Census and Statistics Department, as important as it is, does not meet the deep need for impartial data and analysis that is integral to economic planning and resource allocation. Data-driven policymaking would also have the additional benefit of allowing for a more rational public debate on sensitive topics. As data-driven policies are still at a nascent stage, giving attention to women is yet to be seen in the Sri Lankan context.

Melissa Johnston

Hi Dishani, I really appreciated your detailed response on these issues. You might see in my comments I outlined why my research, and that of my colleagues at Monash Gender Peace and Security, is critical of microfinance as a solution to women's economic empowerment in fragile post-conflict, or indeed Covid-19 affected communities. I want to ask you more about your experiences in Sri Lanka in point 5.
 

You say the impact of loan programs was highly anticipated, but policy change meant they stopped, and ad hoc governance was a problem. Can you elaborate what more systematic governance should have looked like? Also, are there any other economic planning ideas for women except for microfinance? What about factory organising, the public service, or in agriculture? Is there any consistent gender budgeting in Sri Lanka? 

thanks for your insights Dishani. 

Dishani

Thank you for raising that question, Melissa. Following the change of governments, policies are often abruptly changed in the Sri Lankan context. The Budget 2019 aimed to offer tax concessions for the companies that grant three months of maternity leave and various other concessionary loans to provide day care facilities for children, thus encouraging women to remain in the labour force. However, only time will tell whether such steps were actually materialized, given that Sri Lanka is in the midst of another election period now.

Valerie Cliff

Economic independence consistently poses a hurdle to the overall achievement of gender equality. Nowhere is this more apparent than in conflict- and post-conflict contexts, where barriers to women’s economic inclusion are limited further by availability of opportunity, and the exacerbation of the problem of systemic exclusion of women from economic life. To overcome these barriers, there needs to be a coming together of all of society to recognize and prioritize the issue of women’s economic participation. This issue has many facets. One is ensuring that women are afforded equal opportunity for employment and advancements. Another is transforming the future of work for gender equality, through the engagement of private and public sectors around the importance of women’s financial independence. The general trend worldwide still indicates that women bear the burden of unpaid care work, with statistics from Asia-Pacific showing that women do up to three-times more unpaid care-work than men. In conflict-affected contexts, women already disproportionately burdened by physical and financial insecurity, displacement and threats of violence, are further expected to bear the lion’s share of duties to secure food, water and shelter for family members impacted by conflict and displacement. The intersection of all these factors only further serves to exclude women from economic life, including decision-making. It is for these reasons and more that policy and practice actors need to come together, articulate and implement programming that will recognize the centrality of women’s inclusion on post-conflict economic decision making; which ensures that no-one is left behind!

Tanisha Tingle-Smith

A much needed discussion. Recognizing women’s needs in post-conflict contexts and their contributions to long-term recovery and democratization efforts has been long overlooked. Perhaps, the experience in Rwanda offers a hopeful example of how the political, economic and social status of women can be improved during the post-conflict reconstruction. Rwanda's women were instrumental in the remaking of the country. 

 

Mavic Cabrera-Balleza

Hi all! Thank you for organizing this important discussion. Our organization, the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP) in partnership with the New York University Center for Global Affairs and UN Women organized the online panel discussion Ensuring women’s political and economic empowerment after conflict and crisis; Gender in peace deals and COVID-19 responses on June 3rd, 2020. During the panel discussion, we also launched the findings of the research that examined the effect of women’s participation in peace negotiations and gender-sensitive provisions in peace agreements on women’s political representation and economic empowerment post-conflict. The research was conducted by NYU CGA students under the supervision of Prof. Anne Marie Goetz in partnership with GNWP. 

Two of the research findings are: 

1) Gender-sensitive provisions do not seem to improve women’s economic outcomes, measured in terms of their Labor Force Participation and their share of Gross National Income, 5 years post-conflict. 

This finding can be explained by the fact that peace agreements rarely address women’s livelihoods, much less the structural reforms necessary to create truly inclusive economies. Of the 660 peace agreements in the PA-X database(PA-X Gender Peace Agreement Database, )  that the students analyzed, only 36 included economic provisions mentioning women. Even those would be unlikely to bring about transformational change to address fragile economies, weak governance, and high levels of corruption, particularly in extractives-based economies, that afflict most post-conflict countries. 

2) While gender-sensitive agreements had little effect on women’s post-conflict economic prospects, the inclusion of women in peace processes consistently predicted better economic outcomes for women 5 years after the signature of the agreement. 

The research found that compared to the inclusion of gender provisions in the peace agreement, women’s participation in peace negotiations is associated with a higher labor force participation, a higher share of Gross National Income (GNI) for women, and a lower female-to-male GNI ratio 5 years later. 

This finding also requires further investigation since it is well established in the literature, and in this research, that the mere presence of women in peace negotiations does not necessarily lead to strong gender provisions. The students tentatively hypothesized that societies in which women are able to participate in peace negotiations may already see higher rates of women’s economic activity and market engagement, and possibly also stronger and more numerous women’s organizations that can lobby for changes in laws to overcome gendered market barriers. To support this hypothesis, the students used the newly developed Feminist Mobilization Index (FMI, which measures the size and strength of feminist organizations in 120 countries) and found that increases in the FMI are indeed associated with a marginally statistically significant increase in labor force participation. The full research report is available here: https://gnwp.org/wp-content/uploads/GNWP-NYU_ResearchReport2020-final-web.pdf The links to the video recordings of the panel discussion on June 3rd are here: 

https://www.facebook.com/watch/live/?v=688514205051655&ref=watch_permalink

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQsM3vZo2Gw&feature=youtu.be 

Thank you. 

Frances Guy Moderator

HI Mavic,  thank you so much for adding a succinct summary of the results of your research.  i think the potential link between pre-existing economic empowerment for women and successful peace talks is fascinating - but given the examples and suggestions in this discussion of specific help to women entrepreneurs (tenders in Iraq, small businesses in Sri Lanka) and maybe also the suggestion about supporting cooperatives, maybe there is more of a two-way synergy than you initially suggest by which i mean that there needs to be some pre-existing condition (which could be improved knowledge of returning displaced women?) that enables support to small business or other economic ventures and that this in turn helps cement peace.  so how to help encourage/support those small opportunities given the legitimate frustration mentioned above about UN agencies not supporting women businesses ?

Reham Ali

  We can activate the role of women in participation of economic growth through encourage them to participate and form a cooperative associations.
Cooperatives is democratic, independent,  Self-managed organization made up by people who unite with their good free will to meet their economic, social and cultural needs and hops by jointly democracy managed project that could be a consumer or  producer based cooperatives  
                 Cooperatives build on values and principles such as Self-reliance, Equality, and Justice Solidarity, democracy cooperatives doesn’t support any kind of discrimination upon gender , color ,ethnic , or religious it  form the on the one identity based all for one and one for all every member have equity  voice  , also one of the principles is support education and learning for the members and executive’s  investing in individuals maintain effective and efficient  sustainable business  and participate positively in economic growth
               In 2013 the president of the federation of international cooperative association has said   at international women’s day that cooperatives societies has done a lot helping women toward the ladder of economic activity, it acquires respect for society, legitimacy and political influences it also help women to get rid of individual work isolation by uniting together to create an economic measure in addition to increasing their ability to negotiate in the market.
             In Sudan the cooperative movement during the previous government  suffered from a lot  like loss of cooperative identity many of them found by name ,government intervention and there is no support for democracy member managed cooperatives .But know the minister of trade and industry pointed out that the restoration of the cooperative movement is a major goal of the ministry , they started by revoking the un active cooperative studying the write adjustment of cooperative laws all of that make the cooperative An excellent opportunity to activate the  participation of women in cooperatives  for economic growth .
              Cooperatives is are way toward development in our self as individual’s and community as it focus is the members as community building unit Connect the member through a common goals it balance between member needs and achieving profit   community based project and women form more than half of it invest on developing women mean we invest for future and cooperative are way to accomplish that.

*Attached to you the strategy for developing cooperatives in Africa 2017-2020 as insight
 

John Ede

Develop communication channels for women to freely express themselves from community to national levels. When policy making, engage women participation not just in answering questionnaires but collecting and analysing data, advocating through the different arms of government for inclusion in decision making.

Make economic opportunities accessible to women for empowerment and building improved economic empowerment. Let women's groups decided on the kind of loans or grants that they can have access to, and provide flexibility in terms of spending to meet the current realities.

د بثينة المهداوي

من المهم التركيز ايضا على توفير مشاريع خاصة بالمنظمات النسوية المتواجدة في مناطق النزاع، لانها الاقرب الى الفئة المستهدفة من النساء المعنفات والنازحات والعائدات. ان ديمومة عمل تلك المنظمات يساعد على ديمومة العطاء والتواصل مع الفئة المستهدفة من النساء. ولعل من الطرق المفيدة انشاء مشاريع صغيرة تديرها المنظمات النسوية بمشاركة النساء المستهدفات

يجب ان تكون هناك مصادر للعاملات على تفعيل قرار 1325 بشكل مناطقي لضمان نجاح تطبيقه في مناطق النزاع

Laila Lutf Al thour

بالفعل فدعم المنظمات التي تراسها النساء هو من اهم الوسائل لضمان استمرار مشاركة النساء في المجتمع خاصة في ضل استمرار الاطراف في دول الصراع في الاستحواذ الكامل على السلطة واقصاء كبير للنساء من مراكز صنع القرار والتعيينات الحكومية , وكما ان معظم النساء المعنفات من الممكن ان يلجان للمنظمات النسوية الحقوقية ومن الصعب عليهن اللجوء للرجال او اقسام الشرطة لطلب المساعدة نظرا للعادات والتقاليد المجتمعية التي تجعل من العيب على النساء الحديث عن تعرضهن للعنف خاصة العنف الاسري , كما يجب ان يتم الاخذ بعين الاعتبار ضرروة ان تحتوي مشاريع دعم النساء المعنفات على التمكين كونها من اهم سبل الحماية لهن من العودة الى من يقومون بتلك الانتهاكات نظرا لعدم قدرتهن على توفير سبل العيش بعيدا عنهم وهذا بالفعل ما وجدنا من خلال متابعتنا في منظمة سام للعديد من حالات العنف الاسري سواء من قبل ازوج او الاخوة والاب او زوجته   

د بثينة المهداوي

ارغب في مشاركتكم باهم النتائج التي اعلنت في العراق في ظل فايروس كورونا:-

دائرة تمكين المرأة في الأمانة العامة لمجلس الوزراء تنشر نتائج التقرير الخاص بقياس أثر الأزمة الوبائية في زيادة العنف المبني على أساس النوع الإجتماعي

http://cabinet.iq/ArticleShow.aspx?ID=9621 

 

Lubaba

Welcome from Syria
Women in Syria have a prominent role in the economic sphere of the family, especially during the war, as very difficult economic conditions forced women to leave the home and work, and many men became unemployed and unable to secure a livelihood for their family
After the man was objecting to the work of his wife or daughter, he is now encouraging her to work and obtain income for the family.

Also, many women have had to work because of the lack of a breadwinner, because he is either missing, arrested, martyr or migrant.
Our organization (the Syrian Women Association) had a participation in empowering women economically by supporting small projects for women, and the results were very good.

The woman’s obtaining income for her and her family contributes to building her personality, raising her leadership and negotiation skills, and obtaining economic security for her and her family, and this enhances her leadership role at the family and community level.

Gihan Aboutaleb

Thanks Lubaba for sharing experience from Syria and how women are engaging more in economic activities. there is a need to  consolidate and expand upon these gains for women’s empowerment as men return home, to prevent a revision to pre-conflict norms that stand as obstacles to women’s participation and reinforce gender stereotypes.  

Caitlin Williscroft Moderator

Extending thanks to everyone for their contributions over the past two weeks to this discussion on the role of women in post-conflict economic decision-making.

We’ve seen inputs spanning multiple contexts (Iraq, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, Syria, Rwanda, South Africa, Myanmar, Ukraine – to name a few) and from different perspectives, civil society, academic institutions, UN agencies and more. Responses also included fresh evidence (with several resources hyperlinked), recent reports in the public domain and examples from different contexts.

Some key sound bites and ideas raised during last week’s discussion includes:

  • Recent research shows that gender-sensitive provisions do not appear to improve women’s economic outcomes. Instead, the inclusion of women in peace processes consistently predicted better economic outcomes for women 5 years after the signature of the agreement (report available here)
  • Research shows that economic and financial inclusion of women helps unlock the potential for women’s businesses and small enterprises, which can then help reduce poverty of women and their families and increase their resiliency to income shocks, crises, and other challenges (report here)
  • Multiple interventions raised how socio-cultural norms impact women’s role in post-conflict economic decision-making, ranging from how norms inhibit the ascension of women to leadership roles to the care giving roles ascribed to women and the associated unpaid care burden (which is particularly acute in contexts with limited or fractured health and social security systems).
  • Bringing women into post-conflict economic decision-making is challenging given prevailing norms, therefore many participants raised the importance of putting in place formal mechanisms to guarantee women’s meaningful participation in formal post-conflict economic recovery processes.
  • Meaningfully including local perspectives and local communities by going beyond tokenism, elite-focused initiatives and top down approaches was flagged as critical.
  • Intersectionality – women are not a homogenous group. Socio-economic status, ethnicity, race etc. all intersect with gender identify, understanding these nuances in a discussion on women’s role in post-conflict decision-making is critical to avoid consolidating other forms of social inequalities.
  • Need to look at economic recovery holistically and take on a short and long-term approaches. Some critical areas to support women’s economic empowerment include land reform and access to land, particularly around women’s right to inheritance and right to own land; banking and finance reform, universal basic income etc.
  • Participants raised concern about the lack of evidence around micro-finance, which is often seen as a ‘quick win’, highlighting that evidence demonstrates that micro-finance does not necessarily reduce poverty or break cycles of poverty.

I look forward to following this lively and informative discussion in the coming weeks!

swedi bilombele
Dear Friends Greetings, Please, with regard Women’s role in post-conflict economic decision making in our areas especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) the Women’s local leaders from civil society organizations by representatives of these NGOs have contributed to undertake economic activities in their own, and to participate in the political, cultural and social sphere in the country. Women’s NGOs created network with the aims to promote a culture of peace and recognize that this requires the involvement of both men and women. The local autochthonous women’ leaders have contributed to consolidate between: - dialogue - organisations de campagnes d’animation, créer un cadre de réflexion collective, séminaires atelier des leaders féminins, - renforcer les pratiques d’auto promotion de comite des femmes, - échanges d’expériences entre les groupes à tous les niveaux. - organise de rencontres mixtes, des sessions de formation à travers les villages et quartier, To the improvement of food supplies , access to land , education , technology and funding and the need to produce food for her family and to participate in all spheres of public and private life through a full and equal share in economic , social , cultural and political decision making , and responsibility was established between women and men at home, in the workplace and in the wider national and local communities in the country and access to professional opportunities in life. Women have token initiative as equal partners in their participatory in the process of development and to take their equal position in society and services, to take action and spoken in their own voice , on the basis of their own experiences and values and eventually transform structures. But much is needed to be done. In some regions, women have difficult access to credit which would further improve their standard of living. Women have the highest literacy rate and 70% of the poor are women, thus low participation in decision making. Women are neither in space associated with the mechanism of management of public affairs; they do not take part in family reunions. At the political party level women are discriminated against, they do not have decision-making positions in institutions because of underestimates. Thus in rural areas have no audience they are relegated to the kitchen for all ceremonies. Culture discriminating against women, deprivation of speech and movement. The above strategies would have been the woman to achieve these rights and economic values after post conflict values. In the context of religious organizations, in particular at the local level, training and dialogues between peoples have been specially organized in order to prepare women for engagement as well as multi-actor cooperation in post-conflict environments. Participants suggested that women's organizations could play an important role in putting extremists on a human face and engaging them in dialogue, defending the rights of marginalized minorities during conflicts and cultural suspicion and mistrust, and ensuring sustainable democratization and the rights of all groups in society. . The women's organization of NGO representatives involved in peace negotiations between the government is exploring possibilities for continuing the dialogue and identifying the issues that should be addressed by a peace process in the process of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, because it offers people opportunities to find a job and reintegrate society and other decision-makers, but also through greater public awareness, in a post-conflict situation. Hoping to hearing from you With best regards.
Gihan Aboutaleb

Many thanks Swedi for highlighting key updates on women CSOs initiatives in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is particularly interesting how the initiatives that are undertaken by women and the engagement of men are contributing to the sharing of responsibilities at home. you have shed the light on some challenges that stand against women economic empowerment including access to finance, the high literacy rates amongst women compared to men and the limited participation of women in decision-making at all levels. another key take-away is the role of religious organizations, the role that women could play in preventing violent extremism and the opportunities that could be created when women engage in peace processes.  

Danielle De La Fuente

Greetings from New York! 

Women continue to play a pivotal role in peacebuilding efforts, without their contribution there would be a major missing voice in conflict resolution efforts. At Amal Alliance we know that children are the peacemakers of the future, yet, in order to empower them we need to start by empowering young women. Our work focuses on social development for displaced children through holistic education; these programs have a dual focused lens that helps children while also training female teachers.

In Lebanon, our Rainbow of Education modules use women-centered initiatives to build up their skills and give them the space to educate children. This 5-day training program for teachers uses various icebreakers, games, poses, and breathing exercises to promote the core concepts of our social emotional learning curriculum. In turn, these programs build the confidence of these marginalized women and entrust them with educating local children. What worked specifically for us was the safe space that we created for our teachers; this allowed them to feel comfortable and supported enough to voice their needs. Also, giving them the tools to facilitate self-care was also helpful. Ultimately, having their input allowed us to refocus our programming to best respond to the communities we serve.

dr faiza

يسعد أوقاتكم 

 استاذة جامعية وناشطة مجتمعية حقوقية 

وعذرا لتأخر المشاركة بسبب الظروف االحرب في طرابلس التي توقفت الآن الحمد لله 

وسوف أركز مداخلتي في الاتي 

أولا- لا توجد صعوبة لادماج المرأة في القطاع الاقتصادي الرسمي وغير الرسمي لان المرأة العاملة في القطاع العام تم تمكينها بمنظومة تشريعية متميزة تكفل لها حقوقها بالمسارواة مع الرجل 

كما وأن المرأة  لها حق تاسيس شركات وفق القانون التجاري 

ثانيا- الملاحظ ان المرأة استفادت أيضا من التقنية اي وسائل الاتصال لـتأسيس أنشطتها الاقتصادية الخاصة وخاصة المرأة الشابة التي تروج الآن لمختلف السلع وتقوم بالعمل من منزلها 

 

إلا أن المرأة كما الرجل موضع استغلال من قبل القطاع الخاص الذي يقوم بتوظيفها ولا يكفل لها حقوقها لعدم وجود رقابة فاعلة وعدم الوعي الحقوقي الذي يؤثر سلبا على المرأو يجعلها ضحية عنف 

ثانيا- الاشكالية في عدم الاستفادة من برامج المشاريع الصغري مع وجود نماذج ناجحة ولكنها قليلة مما يوجب الاهتمام بهذا

الجانب غير المقنن تشريعيا

 

ثالثا- لدينا فهمة مهمشة ومهملة  وهن المتشردات اللائي لا يتمعتن الا بحماية محدودة ولكن لا يتمكن من الحصول على تدريب ولا تمويلات مالية لـتأسيس مشاريعهن الصغري 

 

رابعا - عدم وجود برامج للرعاية اللاحقة لمن يخرجن من السجون لاجل ادامجهن في سوق العمل ومساعدتهن لتأسيس

مشاريعهن

سوف اتابع معكم النقاش لاحقا لنستفيد من خبرات بعضنا البعض 

 

دمتم بخير وسلام    

   

Gihan Aboutaleb

شكرا استاذة فايزة على مداخلتكم الكريمة، هل يمكن ان تشاركينا أكثر كيف اثرت أوضاع النزاع على مشاركة المرأة مقارنة بالرجال، ,وكيف ترين مشاركة المرأة الليبية في صنع القرار؟    

swedi bilombele
Dear Friends Greetings, Please, with regard Women’s role in post-conflict economic decision making in our areas especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) the Women’s local leaders from civil society organizations by representatives of these NGOs have contributed to undertake economic activities in their own, and to participate in the political, cultural and social sphere in the country. Women’s NGOs created network with the aims to promote a culture of peace and recognize that this requires the involvement of both men and women. The local autochthonous women ’leaders have contributed to consolidate between: - Dialogue - Organization of animation campaigns, creating a framework for collective reflection, workshop seminars for female leaders, - Strengthen the self-promotion practices of a women's committee, - Exchange of experiences between groups at all levels. - organizes mixed meetings, training sessions across villages and neighborhoods, To the improvement of food supplies , access to land , education , technology and funding and the need to produce food for her family and to participate in all spheres of public and private life through a full and equal share in economic , social , cultural and political decision making , and responsibility was established between women and men at home, in the workplace and in the wider national and local communities in the country and access to professional opportunities in life. Women have token initiative as equal partners in their participatory in the process of development and to take their equal position in society and services, to take action and spoken in their own voice , on the basis of their own experiences and values and eventually transform structures. But much is needed to be done. In some regions, women have difficult access to credit which would further improve their standard of living. Women have the highest literacy rate and 70% of the poor are women, thus low participation in decision making. Women are neither in space associated with the mechanism of management of public affairs; they do not take part in family reunions. At the political party level women are discriminated against, they do not have decision-making positions in institutions because of underestimates. Thus in rural areas have no audience they are relegated to the kitchen for all ceremonies. Culture discriminating against women, deprivation of speech and movement. The above strategies would have been the woman to achieve these rights and economic values after post conflict values. In the context of religious organizations, in particular at the local level, training and dialogues between peoples have been specially organized in order to prepare women for engagement as well as multi-actor cooperation in post-conflict environments. Participants suggested that women's organizations could play an important role in putting extremists on a human face and engaging them in dialogue, defending the rights of marginalized minorities during conflicts and cultural suspicion and mistrust, and ensuring sustainable democratization and the rights of all groups in society. . The women's organization of NGO representatives involved in peace negotiations between the government is exploring possibilities for continuing the dialogue and identifying the issues that should be addressed by a peace process in the process of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, because it offers people opportunities to find a job and reintegrate society and other decision-makers, but also through greater public awareness, in a post-conflict situation. Hoping to hearing from you With Best regards.
dr faiza

تحية طيبة 

نذكر بإن إعلان بيجن منذ العام 1995م أكد على أن ( القضاء على الفقر بالاعتماد على النمو الاقتصادي المطرد، والتنمية الاجتماعية، وحماية البيئة، وتوفير العدالة الاجتماعية يقضي إشراك المرأة في التنمية الاقتصادية والاجتماعية وتحقيق تكافؤ الفرص ومشاركة المرأة والرجل مشاركة كاملة على قدم المساواة، باعتبارهما من عوامل تحقيق التنمية المستدامة الموجهة لخدمة البشر وباعتبارهما مستفيدين منه)

ونذكر أيضا  بضرورة إتخاذ آليات لتعزيز( الاستقلال الاقتصادي للمرأة، بما في ذلك توفير فرص العمل لها، والقضاء على عبء الفقر المستمر والمتزايد الواقع على المرأة من خلال معالجة الأسباب الهيكلية للفقر، عن طريق إجراء تغييرات في الهياكل الاقتصادية وضمان تحقيق المساواة في وصول جميع النساء، بمن فيهم نساء المناطق الريفية)

ولقد سبق ذلك استراتيجيات نيروبي التطلعية للنهوض بالمرأة 1985

وغير ذلك العديد من الوثائق التي لم تهتم بها دول العالم الثالث  وفي ليبيا تمكنت المرأة من تحقيق الاستقلال الاقتصادي تشريعيا حيث كفل لها الحق في العمل والحق في تولى وظائف عامة 

وأكد على استقلال ذمتها المالية في قانون الاحوال الشخصية 

 

الا ان الخلل يكمن في الثقافة المجتمعية والاعراف السائدة التي تحرم المرأة من الميراث ومن مرتبها وتستغل أسوأ استغلال

 كما وأن إهمال التنمية الريفية حرم النساء بتلك المناطق من حقها في الاستقلال الاقتصادي بالرغم من أن الظروف التي تعيشها ليبيا منذ 2011م دفعت بالنساء في الريف والمدن على حد سواء لتطوير قدراتهن والعمل في مشاريع صغري ببيوتهن  من أجل توفير احتياجاتهن واسرهم

وساعدت التنقية في تسويق منتجهم عن طريق  الاعلانات الممولة

  وهو ما يجب التركيز عليه في المرحلة القادمة وتسليط الضوء على قصص النجاح لتحفيز باقي النساء 

Gihan Aboutaleb

With thanks to everyone for contributing to this discussion on how to ensure women are at the forefront of key economic decisions during and after conflicts and the means to change pre-conflict structures. Over the last week, we saw more cross-experiences from countries including Libya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Lebanon, and Syria

Some key take-aways from this week to consider for the discussions over the next two weeks include:

  • The need to embed fundamental normative frameworks of gender equality including Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, WPS provisions, and SDGs into policy interventions at the local and national levels.
  • The lack of economic rights increases women’s vulnerability in conflict and fragile setting. The property rights and tenure security of women in general must be specially recognized and protected. Women may be at a particular disadvantage in many places as prevailing ownership rules favor men and land grabbing by local or national elites sometimes occur in post-conflict setting. These factors can both reduce economic opportunities and be a cause of tension and frustration  (as per the latest SG report on WPS, nearly 40% of economies limit women’s property rights and nearly 30% restrict women’s freedom).
  • Although the absence of a male head of household as a result of conflict increases care burdens for women and girls, and often vulnerability, these shifts also present new and important opportunities for women’s engagement in economic activities. We saw an example from Syria showing how women are becoming self-reliant than they had been in the past. The challenge however is consolidating and expanding upon gains for women’s empowerment as men return home, to prevent a revision to pre-conflict norms that stand as obstacles to women’s participation and reinforce gender stereotypes.  
  • The role of women’s organizations and CSOs in bringing in a variety of skills and competencies was stressed through-out the discussion to contribute to women’ s participation (an example from Lebanon on using women- centered initiatives to build up skills and provide space for educating children. Also, it was emphasized the importance of supporting women’s CSOs in conflict affected areas technically and financially to be able to maintain the provision of services to the most vulnerable groups, while also considering designing income-generating programmes for women and girls in theses areas.  
  • The importance of designing programmes with meaningful participation and end-benefit in mind for rural women, widows and female heads of households.  
  • There is a need to support economic empowerment programmes that include men. Such programmes should help to promote positive changes in gender norms by raising awareness of women’s rights, including violence against women and girls. To be effective, engaging with men must go alongside support for women and be measured by positive outcomes for women

Looking forward for more inputs on best practices for ensuring women participation in economic decision- making including touching upon on key policy interventions that need to be prioritized.  For instance how actual resource commitments and specific targets under WPS could be vehicle for implementing more fully women economic empowerment and address long-term structural issues that are beyond immediate assistance.

Galimaï Boukar

Salut à tous !

Je m’appelle Indi Galimaï, femme leader du Désert et « Tambara de l’Aïr » ou « Princesse de l’Aïr »

J’ai choisi le thème intitulé : "Rôle des femmes dans la prise de décisions économiques après un conflit" en vue de partager ma modeste expérience. Tout d’abord, j’ai été secrétaire général du groupement féminin « Tohoï » de Djado entre 1999 et 2001. Nous étions au nombre de 65 femmes et avions décidé de nous entraider et de contribuer à l’effort pour la paix. C’est dans cette perspective que nous avions créé une mutuelle renflouée par les cotisations en nature d’un sac de dattes par femme que nous avions envoyé à Agadez pour vendre. Une foi l’argent dans notre caisse, nous avons décidé de soutenir selon nos moyens chaque femme dans le besoin de façon solidaire. En outre, le groupement finançait des initiatives de commerces des femmes à travers des petits prêts remboursables à terme échu. Nous tenions également un site de maraichage collectif rendu opérationnel avec l’aide de l’ONG ACF. C’est dans ce cadre que nous avions été sollicités par le projet Paix en vue de participé aux efforts pour la culture de la paix. Nous avions volontiers accepté d’y apporter notre concours. Il s’agissait précisément d’apporter une aide psychologique aux familles endeuillées et de soutenir les jeunes en leur octroyant un fond de réinsertion et par des kits des petits ruminants pour l’élevage.

Mieux, dans le cadre de la réalisation des activités du groupement « Silemi » crée en 2007 et dont je suis la présidente depuis 2014, nous mettons l’accent sur l’autonomisation des femmes, la promotion de la scolarisation des filles et la lutte contre certaines pratiques et pesanteurs sociaux. La participation des femmes aux prises des décisions passe par le changement de mentalités. Comptant 73 femmes ce cadre fonctionne grâce aux cotisations de 1000F par personne et par mois. Nous soutenons les femmes dans les difficultés par des contributions selon nos moyens. Nous prêtons également de l’argent aux membres qui développent des activités génératrices de revenue. Cependant, les difficultés liées à la participation des femmes aux efforts de la paix sont innombrables : le manque de subventions, l’analphabétisme, les pesanteurs sociaux, la société traditionnelle…

Tous ces efforts nous ont convaincu que nous devons peser dans la prise des décisions pour mieux faire entendre notre cause. Avec l’acharnement et l’appui de certaines structures non étatiques nous avons pu surmonter certaines difficultés.

C’est ainsi que j’ai été élue membre du conseil communal de Djado de 2004 à 2010. A ce titre, avec mes autres collègues nous avions adopté une décision pour la création d’un fond destinée aux jeunes et aux plus vulnérables. En l’occurrence, il s’agissait de subventionner les petits commerces et l’élevage à petit échelle. Tous cela dans le cadre de crée et de promouvoir les conditions d’une stabilité qui passe forcément par le développement économique.  L’expérience nous a enseignée que la participation des femmes aux structures des prises de décisions passe surtout par l’éducation des filles.

Enfin, j’ai été honoré par le titre de « Tambara de l’Aïr » qui veut dire « Princesse de l’Aïr » octroyé par le Sultanat d’Agadez le 07 décembre 2019. Suite à cette distinction, j’ai été élue présidente des femmes de quatre (4) communes de Bilma. Aussitôt, j’ai entrepris une longue tournée à travers le département de Bima qui nous a conduits de Fachi à Djado en passant par Bilma et Dirkou pour sensibiliser nos sœurs sur les enjeux de l’éducation des filles de la lutte contre certaines pratiques et pesanteurs sociaux néfastes et la culture de la paix. C’est la contribution des certaines femmes et des bonnes volontés qui nous ont permis avec mes deux autres compagnons de voyage d’entreprendre ce long périple.

Le seul moyen d’atteindre cet objectif sur le court terme c’est l’assistance conséquente des structures non étatiques du fait du budget limité des communes.

Pour être sûr de leurs investissements les ONG doivent mettre sur pied de mécanismes rigoureux de suivi.

Par ailleurs, en 2008, j’ai également été sollicitée par la réalisatrice Nathalie Borgers pour participer à son film « Winds of Sand, Women of rock » en français « Vent de sable, femme de roc ». Connaissant le milieu et les hommes, j’ai accepté d’apporter ma modeste contribution puisque le film raconte le quotidien des femmes rurales que nous avions suivi sur environ 1500 km à travers le désert. Après deux ans de préparation le film a été tourné et nous avions l’héroïne et moi été invité en France au festival du film de voyage et d’aventure d’Alberville en 2010. J’ai aussi servi comme interprète dans ce même film.

Le film décrit la marche des femmes Toubou vers plus de liberté, l’histoire d’une longue caravane des chameaux, une des plus longue du monde organisé uniquement par les femmes. Cette caravane est un moyen d’émancipation des femmes Toubou pour plusieurs raisons :

  • Ne pas attendre de l’homme pour certains besoins de la famille (nourrir leur famille indépendamment des hommes) ;
  • Contribuer à l’économie de la famille.

Ce film fait ressortir aussi la force de ces femmes, leur estime d’elle-même, en dépit d’un système culturel(coutume) un peu dure pour elles.

Le film fait ressortir également les difficultés que les femmes vivent dans le Sahara. Autrement dit, le film montre tous les efforts consentis par ces femmes et l’obligation de travailler comme un homme dans le désert.

 

Quelques références du film : "Vent de sable, femme de roc "

- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A23mN_QjNys

- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2aWUJbBTIYE

- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fyulqy7CGRg

- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UPG5a9uDqmA

 

 

 

Aneesa Walji Moderator

Thank you for sharing your experiences and the film links. It was interesting to read, and your work is inspiring! It shows the impact of locally-led initiatives. 

You mention here that the municipalities have only a limited budget, and this point triggered some other thoughts for me.

In different post-conflict contexts around the world, how are budgets allocated at municipal and other levels? Does the process include women? Does it reflect their rights, needs and interests? 

Taking this a step further: What, if any, are the differences between women’s perspectives and existing state and international models that are often instituted post-conflict?

Galimaï Boukar

Au Niger, les communes ont été érigées en 2004 et cela suite aux revendications de mouvements rebelles précédents.

Pendant mon passage au Conseil Municipal de Chirfa (Djado), les décisions étaient votées de façon consensuelle. Cependant, quand il s’agissait d’investissements touchant particulièrement les femmes , mon avis était particulièrement  sollicité. Je faisais partie aussi du comité de suivi et évaluation des activités de la mairie. Il est composé de trois membres. Jusqu’en 2007, les recettes étaient constituées de taxes de deux postes de péages de Chirfa et à Séguédine sur l’axe transsaharien Agadez-Libye et de dividendes liées au tourisme. A partir de cette date, la naissance d’un nouveau mouvement rebelle a décimé ce secteur. Après une entente entre belligérants fin 2008 et un début de reprise des activités du secteur de tourisme, c’est un nouveau phénomène plus tentaculaire qui s’installa à partir de 2011 et commença à affecter toute la sous-région.

À partir de 2012, les communes commencèrent à recevoir de subventions au titre de l’exploitation de mines dans la région d’Agadez, mais elles ne furent pas décaissées dans le temps. Aussi l’absence de partenaires a créé un grand manque à gagner.

Les structures de prise de décisions sont dominées par les hommes. Partout, les institutions tendent du moins textuellement vers une plus grande représentativité. Cela est aussi du fait de l’analphabétisme et du système traditionnel que l’Etat tente de corriger avec l’appui conséquent des partenaires.

Aujourd’hui, c’est le phénomène du terrorisme, qui menace une grande partie de notre commune.

Ayad Babaa

هنا بعض التعليقات من

خديجة علي التايب /منظمة أثر للتنمية و التمكين

ليبيا

atharde1@gmail.com

 

كيف تعطي النساء الأولوية لإعادة البناء الاقتصادي؟

تأثر الاقتصاد الوطني سلبيا بالعديد من العوامل و التهديدات ابرزها ( الحرب - اغلاق الحقول النفطية - انتشار جائحة كوفد 19) و في ذات السياق أدى كل ذلك الى اغلاق العديد من الانشطة الاقتصادية التي تنضوي تحت تصنيف المشاريع الصغرى و متناهية الصغرى و حتى المشاريع المتوسطة , العديد من هذه الانشطة تقوم عليها نساء لاسباب مختلفة ( الاكتفاء الذاتي - تحسين المستوى المعيشي - استقلال اقتصادي). عملية اعادة هيكلة الاقتصاد تعتبر عملية معقدة جدا في ظل تعدد الاطراف المعيقة للانتعاش الاقتصادي ,و بحكم ان ليبيا بشكل عام و الجنوب بشكل خاص تغزوه البيئة القبلية وبعض العادات الذكورية التي تحدّ من مشاركة المرأة بشكل عام و لكن باعتقادي بعد الطفرة المميزة التي انطلقت بها المرأة من خلال الانشطة الاقتصادية المختلفة قبل وخلال انتشار الجائحة و التي وفرت منتجات وخدمات اوفر من تلك المقدمة من شركات كبرى او مستوردة من الخارج ( الحلويات - الاكسسوارات - معدات الحماية من العدوى - الاطعمة ....... الخ ) , لذلك فإن النساء ستعطي اولوية كبيرة للمشاركة في اعادة انعاش الاقتصادي الوطني وفي تقديري سوف تشرع في توسعة انشطتهن الاقتصادية لصناعة اقتصاد موازي للاقتصاد الريعي و الدخل التقليدي( المرتبات )

 

ما هي الاختلافات بين وجهات نظر النساء والنماذج الحالية للدولة والعالمية التي غالبًا ما يتم وضعها بعد الصراع؟

تختلف وجهات النظر باختلاف البيئة التي توجد بها النساء ,مثلا في الجنوب النساء قد تنظر الى ليبيا اثناء الصراع الى انها دولة مهددة بالتقسيم نظير الفجور في الخصومة و استمرار الاستعانة بالاطراف الاقليمية التي تطيل عمر الازمة الليبية , اما بعد الصراع دولة منهكة اقتصاديا و سياسيا و اجتماعيا تحتاج الى عدالة انتقالية حقيقية تتضمن رد المظالم وجبر الضرر و فتح الاقتصاد لخلق فرص للاستثمار و التنمية السريعة , بالاضافة الى انها العديد من النساء تولي اعادة الاعمار و اعادة النازحين الى مساكنهم اولوية كبيرة بعد انتهاء الصراع

 

ما هي الأمثلة الجيدة التي أدت إلى زيادة مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد وفي صنع القرار الاقتصادي ، بما في ذلك إعادة بناء الأولويات؟ ما الذي نجح؟ ما الذي لم ينجح؟

قبل اشتداد الازمة السياسية العسكرية كانت النساء قد بدأت ثورة اقتصادية في عالم ريادة الاعمال و الريادة الاجتماعية نتج عنها عدد من النماذج الناجحة منها مشروع Yummy و الذي كان نتاج مشاركة شابتين في مسابقة انجازي لريادة الاعمال الاجتماعية التي اشرفت عليها شركة تطوير للابحاث والاستشارات و تمثلت جدوى المشروع في توفير علاقة ربحية اجتماعية بين النساء من الفئات الضعيفة و الماهرات في صناعة الطعام و بين الشباب العاطل عن العمل و بين الزبائن الباحثين عن اطعمة من مصادر صحية و ذات تكلفة مخفضة بحيث ساهم المشروع في تحسين الاوضاع المعيشية للنساء و توفير فرص عمل للشباب العاطلين عن العمل من خلال خدمات التوصيل كما وفر الطعام الصحي و المنزلي النظيف للزبائن خاصة من ذوي الدخل المحدود ساهم نجاح هذا المشروع في زيادة الاقبال على الانشطة الاقتصادية المماثلة بحيث تم افتتاح عدد من معامل الاطعمة في الرقعة الجغرافية القريبة من منطقة شهرة المشروع الفكرة الرئيسية هنا انه لضمان مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد يجب توفير الدعم المناسب و المباشر بعيدا عن استخدام الوسيط و يجب ان يتضمن هذا الدعم ( التغطية المالية و التدريب التقني ) فيما عدى ذلك فإن هناك العديد من الافكار و المشاريع التي لم تحقق نجاح بسبب عدم حصول القائمات عليها على دعم مناسب سلس يتماشى مع قدراتهن

 

كيف يمكننا ضمان أن الانتعاش الاقتصادي السريع يزيد من الفرص الاقتصادية للمرأة؟ ما هي التدابير المحددة التي نجحت؟ ما العقبات التي واجهتها؟

في حال تخصيص حصة واضحة من الناتج الاقتصادي لتشجيع و دعم النساء اقتصاديا كما حدث في التمثيل السياسي على المستوى المحلي ( تخصيص مقعد للمرأة في انتخابات المجالس البلدية و السماح لها بالانتخاب على الفئة العامة) , حينها سوف يكون هناك ضمانات حقيقية لتمويل الفرص الاقتصادية للمرأة ,شريطة ان يتم ادارة الحصة المالية من قبل خبرات اقتصادية ناجعة تحول دون اهدارها و كذلك تضمن العدالة في الوصول لكل رائدات الاعمال عادة ما تواجه النساء صعوبة في الوصول الى الدعم و ذلك لاسباب ابرزها الفساد و عدم وضع الثقة بها من قبل صناع القرار و فيما يخص الدعم الدولي فإنه قد لا يراعي الاحتياجات الحقيقية للتمكين الاقتصادي للنساء وفقا للاقليم و كذلك هناك معضلة اخرى و هي استخدام مؤسسات محلية من خارج مناطق معينة لتمويل و دعم مشاريع داخل تلك المناطق دون مراعاة كافية لخصوصية المنطقة او حتى الدراية الكافية بالفرص الحقيقية المتوفرة بها

8.ماذا كان التأثير؟ ماذا حدث كان مختلفا؟

تأثير سلبي نتيجة تحديات كثيرة تعيق وصول النساء الى الدعم , ابرزها البيروقراطية و المركزية و الفساد و فيما يخص الدعم الدولي ايضا عدم العدالة في توزيع فرص الدعم على المناطق

 

هل كان هناك أي دعم خارجي مهم بشكل خاص؟ هل هناك دروس للتعلم من توقيت هذا الدعم؟ ما الدعم الذي قد يكون ساعد ولكن لم يكن قادمًا؟

هناك عدد من برامج الدعم الاقتصادي الدولية و لكن يتم ادارتها ايضا بشكل مركزي عادة و بشروط تقديم صعبة جدا تحول دون وصول العديد من النساء الى هذا الدعم يجب تخصيص صناديق دعم اقتصادية ممولة دوليا و لكن مقسمة على اقاليم ليبيا بشكل يراعي خصوصية كل اقليم بالاضافة الى اتاحة الفرصة للجميع للوصول الى هذا الدعم

 

كيف انخرط الرجال؟ ما الذي نجح؟

لم افهم المغزى الحقيقي من السؤال , ولكن بشكل عام حاليا بدء الرجل يتقبل فكرة عمل المرأة و امتلاكها لمشروعها الخاص بعد ان اصبحت تحقق ربح و دخل يرفع عنه جزء من عبء المصاريف

 

هل يمكن للتكنولوجيات الجديدة أن تساعد على تمكين المرأة في حالات التعافي؟ إذا كان الأمر كذلك ، فكيف؟ هل يمكنهم المساعدة في ضمان الدمج؟

التكنولوجيا قد تساعد فئة معينة من النساء و هن الشابات من جيل 2000 وما يليها و ذلك بسبب عدم حصول الاجيال السابقة على فرص حقيقية لاتقان التكنولوجيا بالاضافة كما دكرت سابقا للنساء خصوصية في المهارات و الميول الاقتصادي و طبيعة المشاريع وفقا للاقليم او المنطقة التي توجد بها

 

كيف يمكننا ضمان إدراج احتياجات وآراء أكثر الفئات المهمشة؟ ما هي الأمثلة الجيدة على إدراج النساء ذوات الإعاقة ، مجتمعات المثليين؟

المسح الميداني قد يفي بالغرض ملثما جربنا سابقا في عدد من الانشطة قمنا باستهدافهم مباشرة بمسح ميداني و استبيانات لتحليل سلوكهم و توجههم و الاحتياجات المطلوبة لكي ينطلقوا في نشاطهم الاقتصادي

 

ما هو الدور الذي يمكن أن تلعبه البيانات في تحسين مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد وفي صنع القرار الاقتصادي؟

الاحصائيات و البيانات الناتجة عن الدراسات التسويقية هامة جدا شريطة ان تشرف عليها منظمات محلية تعلم جيدا طبيعة الوضع الحقيقي بعيدا عن التزييف

 

Aneesa Walji Moderator

Thank you for the rich contribution. 

You made an important point about priorities. Women tend to prioritize small to medium scale economic initiatives in Libya and elsewhere too. Meanwhile, huge sums of money continue to go to large-scale infrastructure, natural resource extraction and other sorts of projects.

What needs to be done to change this?

Galimaï Boukar

Il faut une prise de conscience et de la volonté politique pour accompagner avec plus d’égard les initiatives économiques des femmes. Au lieu des investissements coûteux dans d’autres secteurs, la tendance doit être réorientée vers le développement à la base en octroyant de financements aux petits projets des femmes. C’est la condition de leur émancipation. En amont de tout cela, les structures politiques, largement dominées par les hommes, doivent prendre en compte la problématique de la représentativité pour les postes électifs et nominatifs ainsi que dans leurs programmes politiques.

En outre, il est aisé de constater que plus les hommes sont éduqués et débarrassés de leurs idées reçues(préjuger), plus ils accèdent à la participation politique de femmes et à l’éducation de filles.

Ayad Babaa

هنا بعض التعليقات من

الشبكه الليبية لدعم وتمكين المرأة

ليبيا

Suzanhemmi@gmail.com

 

كيف تعطي النساء الأولوية لإعادة البناء الاقتصادي؟

بدعمهن في المشاريع الصغرى بمنح لهن القروض والتسهيلات المصرفيه

 

ما هي الاختلافات بين وجهات نظر النساء والنماذج الحالية للدولة والعالمية التي غالبًا ما يتم وضعها بعد الصراع؟

الاصطفاف السياسي قد يؤثر على القرار الاقتصادي ولكن توحيد الهدف لقضايا المراه ممكن يكون كنهن الكشاريع الاقتصاديه ودعم القطاع الخاص

 

ما هي الأمثلة الجيدة التي أدت إلى زيادة مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد وفي صنع القرار الاقتصادي ، بما في ذلك إعادة بناء الأولويات؟ ما الذي نجح؟ ما الذي لم ينجح؟

القروض الصفيره ساهمة في اقامة مشاغل الحلويات والملايس وايضا شركات التدريب كان عدد كبيره منهن نساء مثل التاهيل الوضيف في وزارة العمل هذه العقوظ ادت الى ضخ المال في للقطاع وانتعاش القطاع الخاص في2014

 

كيف يمكننا ضمان أن الانتعاش الاقتصادي السريع يزيد من الفرص الاقتصادية للمرأة؟ ما هي التدابير المحددة التي نجحت؟ ما العقبات التي واجهتها؟

مثل مسبق ذكرت عن تجربتي الخاصه في عقود وزارت العمل تم ضخ مبلغ 230الف دينار قيمة العقد ... اما بالنسبه للمصاعب كانت المركزيه وتاخير دفعات الماليه في كل مرحلة لاللضافه للتعقيدات الاداريه وارتفاع سعر الصرف

 

ماذا كان التأثير؟ ماذا حدث كان مختلفا؟

هو استافاده كل من اكثر من قطاع الطباعة المطبعات والكترونات واصحاب العقارات في تاجير القاعات المطاعم الصغيره والباصات للنقل بها الطلبه ايضا المدربين

 

هل كان هناك أي دعم خارجي مهم بشكل خاص؟ هل هناك دروس للتعلم من توقيت هذا الدعم؟ ما الدعم الذي قد يكون ساعد ولكن لم يكن قادمًا؟

نعم الدعم الخارجي مهم قبل ما انشاء مشروعي اخذت دوره في كيف تديرين مشروع خاص من منظمة الكومن برباس

 

كيف انخرط الرجال؟ ما الذي نجح؟

كانو داعمين لنا واقامة شركات لاباس بيها والاحترام المتبادل لاني صاحبة راس المال والمدير التنفيذي

 

هل يمكن للتكنولوجيات الجديدة أن تساعد على تمكين المرأة في حالات التعافي؟ إذا كان الأمر كذلك ، فكيف؟ هل يمكنهم المساعدة في ضمان الدمج؟

نعم دورات الاون لاين

 

كيف يمكننا ضمان إدراج احتياجات وآراء أكثر الفئات المهمشة؟ ما هي الأمثلة الجيدة على إدراج النساء ذوات الإعاقة ، مجتمعات المثليين؟

ممكن النساء ذوات الاعاقه وممن استبدالها بالمعنفات مثل من هن سبق اغتصابهن ودخلنا السجون بسبب متتسمى جرائم جنسبه

 

ما هو الدور الذي يمكن أن تلعبه البيانات في تحسين مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد وفي صنع القرار الاقتصادي؟

اعتقد انه يستفاد وصول اامعلومه الاكثر دقه من القاعده

 

 

Aneesa Walji Moderator

Thank you for all this.

I am especially noting your point about the importance of having accurate information to underpin and plan interventions.

It would be interesting to think more about the role of men that you mention too.

Questions for everyone: How exactly can men provide support? What are some stories or experiences here?

Ayad Babaa

هنا بعض التعليقات من

منظمة نانا مارن الاهلية

ليبيا

Nmalte47@gmail.com

 

كيف تعطي النساء الأولوية لإعادة البناء الاقتصادي؟

المساهمة في وضع تشريعات تحسن من وضع المراه في ليبيا الوصول الي الخدمات المالية بما في دلك القروض المصرفية ايجاد او تقوية الاجسام التي تعني بشؤون وقضايا المراه وتكون المسؤوله عن التنسيق والرصد والدعم ورسم السياسات والخطط للمراه

 

ما هي الاختلافات بين وجهات نظر النساء والنماذج الحالية للدولة والعالمية التي غالبًا ما يتم وضعها بعد الصراع؟

الاختلافات هي . يجب ان تكون المراه جزء من مفاوضات السلام جزء من العملية الانتقالية بعد النزاع ان يكون تمثيلها تمثيل عادل في جميع القطاعات الاقصادية والسياسيه بنسبة علي الاقل 30% عدم التمييز بين الجنسين والمساواة فيما يتعلق بقوانين الاحوال والعمل

 

ما هي الأمثلة الجيدة التي أدت إلى زيادة مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد وفي صنع القرار الاقتصادي ، بما في ذلك إعادة بناء الأولويات؟ ما الذي نجح؟ ما الذي لم ينجح؟

الازمة التي صارت في ليبيا من قلة السيوله وارتفاع الاسعار ونزوح بعض العائلات وغيرها من الظروف الصعبة جعل المراه تفكر كيف تساعد عائلتها ف زاد عدد السيدات اللواتي يمارسن الاعمال التجارية الصغيرةفي مجالات مختلفه في السنوات الاخيره الصعبة منها التسويق عبر صفحات التواصل والتجارة وكدلك في الصناعات المختلفه منها صناعة الاكسوات والحلي وصناعة المنسوجات وصناعة التحف واكسسوارات المنل ومنهم من اشتغل في الزراعه والصناعات الغدائية وعمل المنسوجات الصوفيه وصناعة الخزف والفخار وخاصة في المناطق الريفية مثل امازيغات جبل نافوسة .. وان اغلبية صاحبات الاعمال يشاركن في الاقتصاد الغير رسمي لانهم يمارسون اعمالهن من المنزل تزايد اقبال المراه علي التحصيل العلمي الدي نجح هو ما قلته سابقا من بعض الصناعات المختلفة والتسويق وبعص التجارة ولكنها تضل صغيره ولم تصل الي المستوي المطلوب بسبب قلة الدعم والظروف الغير مستقره والدي لم ينجح . العمل في القطاع الخاص بالنسبة للمراه او غيرها لم يصل الي النجاح بعد لعدة اسباب . منها التمييز في الاجور وتقليص مرتبات الموظفات . وعدم تباث واستقرار الوظيفة وكثرة ساعات العمل وضعف المزايا والحوافز المادية والغير مادية وانعدام الحماية والرقابة من قبل الجهات المختصة وكدلك شهد القطاع الزراعي ركود كبير الدي يعتبر من اهم القطاعات الدي تعتمد عليه المناطق الريفية بسبب الحروب والصراعات والنزوح

 

كيف يمكننا ضمان أن الانتعاش الاقتصادي السريع يزيد من الفرص الاقتصادية للمرأة؟ ما هي التدابير المحددة التي نجحت؟ ما العقبات التي واجهتها؟

عندما يكون هناك انتعاش اقتصادي في ليبيا هدا سيعطي للمراه فرصة اكبر لكي توسع من اعمالها وتجارتها او مشروعها الزراعي ودلك بسبب انتعاش سوق العمل ونشاطه كدلك يجب وضع حقوق المراه العاملة في التشريعات الليبية ودعم وضع دستور يضمن حقوقها من جميع النواحي التدابير المحددة التي نجحت . كانت هناك جهود مختلفة من عدد من مؤسسات المجتمع المدني المحلي وبمساعدة المنظمات الدوليه في عدد من المشاريع منها مشاريع لكسب العيش ومنها مشاريع تدريب ورفع قدرات ومهارات النساء في بعض المناطق ولكن هدة المشاريع لم تصل الي نتائج كبيره واستدامه ودلك لعدة اسباب يطول شرحها منها الصراعات وقلة الامن والاستقرار والانقسامات و ايقاف الدعم وغيرها من الاسباب العقبات التي واجهت المراه كثيره جدا ونلخص جزء منها والاهم غياب اليات توظيف الباحتاث عن عمل وقلة فرص العمل انتشار الفساد الاداري والمالي والاخلاقي العادات والتقاليد المقيدة لابداعات المراه في بعض المناطق من ليبيا وخاصة المناطق الريفية لا توجد ارقام او احصائيات دقيقه عن حجم الاعمال التي تملكها او تديرها النساء في القطاع الخاص في ليبيا انعدام الحماية والرقابة من قبل الجهات المختصة الوضع الامني المتدهور وغيرها من الاسباب

 

ماذا كان التأثير؟ ماذا حدث كان مختلفا؟

هناك تاثير ايجابي وهناك تاثير سلبي التاثير الايجابي : هو ان بعض النساء استطاعات ان تساعد نفسها واسرتها في هده الظروف من خلال الاعمال التجاريه او الصناعية التي تقوم بها وتساهم في النمو الاقتصادي الغير رسمي والانتاج المحلي . وتساهم في نقص معدلات الفقر اما التاثير السلبي هو هو احيانا تفرغ المراه وخاصة المتزوجة للعمل بالمشاريع الصغير والمتوسطه الي تقصيرها مع العائله في بعض الاحيات تقصر في تربية الاطفال او تقصر مع الزوج . وكدلك عندما يكون دخل الزوجة اكبر من دخل الزوج هدا سيشكل حساسية بينهم واحيانا تحصل مشاكل

 

هل كان هناك أي دعم خارجي مهم بشكل خاص؟ هل هناك دروس للتعلم من توقيت هذا الدعم؟ ما الدعم الذي قد يكون ساعد ولكن لم يكن قادمًا؟

نعم هناك دعم خارجي من من بعض المنظمات الدولية فعالة في بعض الاحيان ولكن ليس بالصورة المميزه مثل الدعم الممنوح من الاتحاد الاوروبي ومكتب الامم المتحدة و منظمة الغداء العالمي ومنظمة الهجرة الدولية و السفارة الكندية ومنظمة الدي سي اي ومنظمة خبراء فرنسا . معظمها تغطي وتدعم قطاع المشروعات الصغري لخلق سبل العيش الدعم الدي قد يكون ساعد . هو تحسين فرص الحصول علي الدعم المالي للمشاريع الصغري والمتوسطة والتدريب ورفع القدرات والمهارات اللازمة في بعض الحرف والصناعات والتسويق والتجارة وغيرها

 

كيف انخرط الرجال؟ ما الذي نجح؟

النمو الاقتصادي في ليبيا اساسا يعتمد علي النفط ويتحكم فيه مصرف ليبيا المركزي . من حيت القروض والتسهيلات ولا يستفيد مها الا المقربين من المصرف او التابعين وقيادات المجموعات المسلحه القريبه من مصرف ليبيا المركزي وانخرط الرجال بالنسبة للقطاع الخاص حتي هو يتعرض الي تحديات بسبب قلة الامن والاستقرار الدي نجح هي الشركات النفطية الخاصة وبعض شركات استيراد الاغدية والمواد الطبية واستيراد مستلزمات واغدية الاطفال وغيرها من الشركات الخاصة والتي تاخد في اعتمادات وتسهيلات مالية من مصرف ليبيا المركزي

 

هل يمكن للتكنولوجيات الجديدة أن تساعد على تمكين المرأة في حالات التعافي؟ إذا كان الأمر كذلك ، فكيف؟ هل يمكنهم المساعدة في ضمان الدمج؟

نعم التكنولوجيا تساعد المراه في حالات التعافي ولكن بعض النساء وخاصة النساء في المناطق الريفيه لا تستعمل التكنولوجيا بسبب قلة التدريب وقلة الخدمات . كيف بالتدريب ورفع القدرات في مجالات التكنولوجيا .

 

كيف يمكننا ضمان إدراج احتياجات وآراء أكثر الفئات المهمشة؟ ما هي الأمثلة الجيدة على إدراج النساء ذوات الإعاقة ، مجتمعات المثليين؟

هناك بعض الفئات المهمشة مثل دوي الاعاقة من النساء لديهم مشاريع صغيره ويعملون علي تقويتها وعند نجاح هده الفئة الصغيره سيكون هناك دافع لغيرهم من دوي الاعاقة والاحتياجات الخاصة من النساء الامثلة ان هناك نساء تساهم في بعض الصناعات المختلفة مثل صتاعة الاكسسوارات وغيرها

 

ما هو الدور الذي يمكن أن تلعبه البيانات في تحسين مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد وفي صنع القرار الاقتصادي؟

البيانات والمعلومات تلعب دور كبير في تحسين مشاركة المراه في الاقتصاد وتعطي فرصة لزيادة مشاركة المراه في سوق العمل

 

 

 

 

Aneesa Walji Moderator

Yet another commentary with so much to think about. Thank you for sharing. 

One point that struck me is the way you describe how women prioritize economic reconstruction - it shows that it goes beyond a focus only on economic revitalization. Indeed, reconstruction is also about coordination, policy-making and governance. Drawing from other contributions here, it’s also about having inclusive social policies and political participation.

Ayad Babaa

some comment from:

Dr Satya P.Bindra UNDESA Focal Point Libya

libya

s.p.bindra@gmail.com

How do women prioritise for economic reconstruction?

UNDESA Focal Point led women & Girls expect Libya to accelerate the progress of implementation of Global Goal 8 on Economic Development Industrialization and Decent Jobs and Global Goal 5 on Gender Equality Global Goal 10 on No Discrimination and Global Goal 16 on Peace Justice and Strong Institution

 

What are the differences between women’s perspectives and existing state and international models that are often instituted post-conflict? 

Women in Libya expect full implementation of compensation due to widespread deaths and destruction after the Arab Spring 2011 conflict bearing in mind the Libyan history, culture religion and tribal nature of community. They demand implementation of Agenda 2030 for sustainable development of Libya. Women view the dire need for fair compensation of victims of kidnapping, expoitation including sexual abuses Libya after Arab Spring in all respect and especially in Global Goal 3 on Good Health & Well Being because of shortage of medicines, frequent electric cuts stoppages breakdowns and shortage of qualified healthcare staff, Global Goal 4 on Quality Education and Global Goal 9 on Infrastructure impacted due to budget cuts due to blockage of oil & gas fields, frequent electric cuts water supply cuts due to manmade river water supply shut downs by malatia

 

What good examples are there that have led to increased participation of women in the economy and in economic decision making, including eg rebuilding priorities? What worked? What didn’t work? 

Good examples of freedom of speech expression of the human rights and protection of Intl Human rights laws have led to increased participation of women in the economy and in economic decision-making, including rebuilding priorities. Women feel they need better protection for freedom of speech. They resist being harassed and not allowed to express their views

 

How can we ensure that rapid economic recovery increases women’s economic opportunities? What specific measures have worked? What obstacles have you met?

Rapid economic recovery by implementation of non oil industry with Public Private Partnership increases women's economic opportunities. The main obstacles that we all encounter is due to Tripoli War from April 4 2019 onwards. low or no economic recovery due to frequent oil fields closures. Foreign missions who left the country because of political instability, lack of safety and insecurity reasons are still away.

 

What was the impact? what happened that was different? 

The effect is economic down turn, mental stress. Psychological distress. Frequent shut down of both oil & non oil industries. resulting in to non payment of salaries especially to foreign employees like doctors, nurses university professors , shortage of cash high exchange rates in black market and no bank money supply. Shut down of both air flights airports navigation and marine routes impacting international travel and both export and import. The benefit due to so called democratic freedom has not resulted into economic recovery.

 

Was there any outside support that was particularly important? Are there lessons to learn from the timing of that support? What support might have helped but wasn’t forthcoming? 

Yes there was a some external support to NGOs from EU UNSMIL and foreign missions. Trade cuts due to stoppage of oil export and not reliable trade routes both by water and air. Sanctions on Libyan frozen assets mainly by UN sanctions. Trade embargo due to violations of sanctions in defenses supplies. No interference by foreign powers like Russia. UAE, Saudi, Egypt, Turkey, France might have helpe4d in resolution of Libya crisis by Libyan in Libya of Libyans.

 

How were men engaged? What worked?

Men got involved because of instability insecurity no safety and kidnapping of women and girls. No freedom of movement exploited by men for not allowing women and girls’ freedom of movement

 

Can new technologies help women’s empowerment in recovery situations? If so, how? Can they help ensure inclusion?

New technologies like internet, digital debates social media Deep Learning AI and Blockchain can help women like Zoom can empower in recovery situations. Women and girls from the remote locations like office and homes can interact and conduct their business. During COVID 19 Global Pandamic women and girls can and do help effectively as health care warriors in tracking testing treating and tracing (4Ts) COVID 19 patients.

 

How can we ensure that the needs and views of the most marginalized are included? What good examples are there of including disabled women, LGBTQI communities?

The needs and opinions of the most marginalized women and girls are included by use of technologies robotics drones and social media. Women with disabilities by implementation of 17 global goals 169 targets and 332 indicators can learn on line and remote learning

 

What role can data play in improving women’s participation in the economy and in economic decision making?

Big data for measuring modelling mapping and monitoring (4Ms) can and does help play women participation in economic decision making using globalization system of free trade.

 

Ayad Babaa

some comment from:

UNDESA led Eco Group for Zero Plastic pollution

Libya

manjri.borg@gmail.com

 

How do women prioritise for economic reconstruction?

What distinguishes these examples is our continuous engagement through stakeholders of Focal Point Club on rail infrastructure for peace in Africa and EU established way back before Libya crisis and Libyan National Youth Leadership Council (LNYLC) under UNSC 2250 and Libyan Climate Action Children for Peace in Libya (LCACPL) with the cooperation of Climate Activist Greta of Sweden We have a long history of involvement and commitment right after 2001 when Prof Dr Satya Bindra as a volunteer provided a leadership to Environmental General Authority in establishing National Commission for Sustainable Development submitted UNCSD Report 2002-12 Johannesburg & got UNDP supported Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects on National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA), Climate Change Land Degradation and Biodiversity Convention It worked not only to establish peace building peace making and peace keeping in Libya by resolving Lockerbee Sanctions from Libya and finalizing a Umbrella project for EGA through UNDP & Clean Development Measures (CDM) through UNIDO. Dr Satya also served as a UNIDO & NEPAD Consultant to prepare and present African Capacity Self-Assessment (APCI) by Value Chain Analysis Report for Conference of African Ministers of Industry (CAMI) in 2004-5 and elected as Chairman of Megreb Union at UNIDO Conference Tunis 2005. This all helped Libyan women both from UNDP & Academia to get involved not only in peace in Libya but also in Africa in general and Meghreb Union in particular. What did not work was low or no Libyan men involvement due to frequent changes by regime and abuse of human rights and no respect for international human rights? See the example of distinguished Prof Dr Satya with blocked salaries and no benefits what so ever. What a Gross Abuse of Human Rights and blatant disrespect for international humanitarian laws!!! I quote from Speaking at the 44th Session of the Human Rights Council June 20 2020, Acting SRSG and UNSMIL head Stephanie Williams who said that since former SRSG Salame’s briefing in September of last year, serious violations of human rights and humanitarian law have continued to be committed with complete and total impunity in Libya. The impact of these violation on the population is now exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. UNSMIL Head Ms Stephanie Williams further says I Quote (Human rights defenders, journalists and other media professionals continue to be subjected to intimidation, threats and arbitrary detention. Next month, it will be one year since Member of Parliament Sihem Serghewa was violently abducted from her home in Benghazi. Ms. Serghewa is one of countless cases of enforced disappearances in Libya. Her disappearance underscores the impunity that is prevailing in the country and, in this case, the silencing of one of Libya’s prominent female voices and the intimidation of others seeking to participate in the country’s political life. We call upon the concerned authorities to thoroughly investigate Ms. Serghewa’s disappearance, to provide information on her whereabouts, and to hold accountable those responsible for the attack) unquote. Several Local regional & International NGOs with women participation as part of UNDESA Focal Point Team on Global Goal 16 Peace Justice and Strong Institutions are active. They help in accelerating the progress in peacebuilding efforts as reflected in our UNDESA Knowledge Platform and USIP project proposals

 

What are the differences between women’s perspectives and existing state and international models that are often instituted post-conflict? 

Women face formidable challenges and few bold Women NGOs like Ms Asmaa of Dihya Women Empowerment Group with UNDESA support manage to engage in local political decision-making after the conflict. It has some positive impact to calm down conflict .Thus this affects positively other people's lives

 

What good examples are there that have led to increased participation of women in the economy and in economic decision making, including eg rebuilding priorities? What worked? What didn’t work? 

UNDESA Focal Point Libya led teams continuously debate digitally on line virtual conference ( See XXXIV Debate Sessions) Dr Satya Pal Bindra Facebook.

 

How can we ensure that rapid economic recovery increases women’s economic opportunities? What specific measures have worked? What obstacles have you met?

UNDESA Focal Point supported Focal Point Club welcomes releases of prisoners in the context of the COVID 19 pandemic. This ensures that a rapid economic recovery increases women's economic opportunities We have called repeatedly on the authorities to release further prisoners, particularly women and children, persons with disabilities, persons with medical conditions, older persons, migrants and refugees. Obstacles we find is in respect of migrants and asylum seekers women in Libya that continue to be routinely subjected to arbitrary detention, torture, including sexual violence, abduction for ransom, extortion, forced labour and unlawful killings

 

What was the impact? what happened that was different? 

Focal Point Club team responsible for Global Goal 8 on economic development industry & decent jobs finds that manpower supply increases by relieving the migrants and refugees from detention for local entrepreneurs

 

Was there any outside support that was particularly important? Are there lessons to learn from the timing of that support? What support might have helped but wasn’t forthcoming? 

Yes there has been and even now there is a some external support to NGOs/CSOs from EU UNSMIL Canada US and other foreign missions. Embargo and Trade blockages due to stoppage of oil export and not safe and reliable trade routes both by water and air. Sanctions on Libyan frozen assets mainly by UN sanctions. Trade embargo due to violations of sanctions in oil smuggling & defenses supplies. No interference by foreign powers like Russia. UAE, Saudi, Egypt, Turkey, France can and might have helped in resolution of Libya crisis by Libyan in Libya of Libyans.

 

How were men engaged? What worked?

Men got involved because of instability insecurity no safety and kidnapping of women and girls. No freedom of movement for females is exploited by men for not allowing women and girls’ freedom of movement.

 

Can new technologies help women’s empowerment in recovery situations? If so, how? Can they help ensure inclusion?

New technologies like internet, digital debates social media Deep Learning AI drones. and Blockchain can help women like being on Zoom that does empower in recovery situations. Women and girls from the remote locations like office and homes can interact and conduct their business freely without travelling to offices . During COVID 19 Global Pandamic women and girls can and do help effectively as health care warriors in tracking testing treating and tracing (4Ts) COVID 19 patients

 

How can we ensure that the needs and views of the most marginalized are included? What good examples are there of including disabled women, LGBTQI communities?

UNDESA Focal Point led Teams, Groups Academia Youth and NGOs led digital debates and meetings wherever possible are helping to ensure that the needs and opinions of the most marginalized refugees internally displaced people and migrants are included. The good examples of Women Empowered NGOs led by academia colleagues friends youth and children do assist UNDESA Point in its objective of implementing Agenda 2030 related 17 Global Goals, 169 Targets and 332 indicators by inclusion of women with disabilities, LGBT community?

 

What role can data play in improving women’s participation in the economy and in economic decision making?

Big data for measuring modelling mapping and monitoring (4Ms) related to Global Goal 5 on Gender Equality and Global Goal 10 on No Discrimination does help play women participation in economic decision making using globalization concept and free trade.

 

 

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

May peace be with all of you!

While working in multiple forms of emergency situations in Pakistan, I have experienced that women’s economic empowerment tend to have the biggest positive effects on women’s agency and relations within the household and community but  structural change is more difficult to influence - particularly beyond the community level. Although emergency or disaster situation provides  a “window of opportunity” to work towards gender equality as the processes that reproduce gender roles are disrupted, creating spaces for women’s empowerment but I found that changes in these roles are temporary, and gender inequalities are re-established after the disaster particularly in conservative societies. I believe that economic empowerment gives women the confidence to sustain the positive changes in gender relations that can be transformative in the longer term.

In the preceding weeks excellent and thought provoking discussion took place and there are many lesson to be deduced from those rich contributions.

 I have heard impressive success stories from my sisters around the globe when women economic empowerment has brought socio-political transformation within their communities and also stories of failure that how the structures, attitudes and mind set has added to the instability and conflict in their areas.

I am your moderator for the ‘Role of women in post-conflict economic decision making’ for this final week. I look forward to our interaction, sharing of best practices, innovative ideas, lessons learned, stories of success and failure, information and recommendations.

Aneesa Walji Moderator

Thank you to the contributors to the discussion this past week!

We received even more rich commentary spanning contexts, perspectives and the variety of issues related to women’s roles in economic decision making.

There is no way to capture the discussion fully here. I will, however, summarize just a few takeaway points:

  • Local knowledge and experiences need to be given greater priority in the design and implementation of economic initiatives.
  • Resource allocation towards women’s priorities in planning and budgeting is essential (gender budgeting).
  • Contributors from Libya implicitly highlighted that, as we know, economic decisions are being made without women in both conflict and post-conflict contexts. For effective efforts toward positive peace, women’s roles in economic decision-making need to be recognized across what is arguably a spectrum from conflict to post-conflict.
  • Women tend to prioritize small to medium scale economic initiatives in Libya and elsewhere too (e.g. microenterprise development, loans for small businesses, etc.). Meanwhile, huge sums of money continue to go to large-scale infrastructure, natural resource extraction and other sorts of projects.
  • Women may prioritize a broader interpretation of economic reconstruction, which goes beyond a focus only on economic revitalization. Indeed, reconstruction is also about coordination, policy-making and governance, for instance. Issues of protection and security were raised as well (e.g. the example of Ms. Serghewa from Libya, a politician participating in public life whose voice was effectively silenced when she was forcibly disappeared).
  • Public-private partnerships may more likely lead to increases in women’s economic opportunities. Such partnerships should be explored further in both research and decision-making circles.
  • It is critical to have accurate information to underpin and plan interventions. Field surveys can be a useful method to obtain data and statistics to inform planning.
  • Technology offers opportunities for advances in women’s economic position and ability to influence economic decision-making. However, not all women have access to the internet or the capacity to use it. Those women are the most marginalized should not find themselves further left behind through the use of technology in spaces that should benefit them.

I am looking forward to following the final week of discussions! 

laila yemen

 فيما يتعلق باليمن فان النمو الاقتصادي يشهد انهيارا كبيرا على كل الاصعدة حيث ادى انتشار وباء موفيد 19 الى انهيار العديد من الاعمال الصغيرة وخاصة التي تعمل بها النساء مما يعرض الكثير منهن لخطر المجاعة بالاضافة الى ان اسمرار الصراع وفساد الاطراف ادى حاليا الى انهيار العملة المحلية والذي سيكون له انعكاسات اخطر على الوضع الانساني مما ينذر بحدوث اكبر مجاعة وكارثة انسانية من صنع البشر حيث ان اطراف الصراع في الشمال جماعة الحوثي لم تصرف الرواتب للمواطنين لاكثر من 4 سنوات وحاليا اعلنت جماعة المجلس الانتقالي الذي يسيطر على الجنوب عاليا بانه لن يقوم بصرف الرواتب للموظفين في الجنوب وبالتالي فان عددا كبيرا من الموظفين سيدخلون تحت مستوى خط الفقر وبالتالي ارتفاع نسبة المعاناة واعداد المحتاجين .

كما ان استمرار اطراف الصراع في الاستيلاء على كل اموال الدخل القومي لليمن كلا في مناطق سيطرته وتركيزهم بشكل كبير على شراء العقارات والتكديسها في البنوك والمخازن يؤدي الى اضعاف الدورة المالية وبالتالي انخفاظ نسبة السيولة وتوقف الاعمال وهذا ما سيؤدي الى عدم قدرة المواطنين على ايجاد اعمال و لذلك فان التدخلالت الانسانية في اليمن يجب ان ترتكز على التمكين الاقتصادي حيث ان جائحة كورونا سيكون لهها عواقب وخيمة وتاثيرا كبيرا على وضع النساء والفتيات وايضا الشباب   

Zenobia Association for Syrian Women

1-      كيف تعطي النساء الأولوية لإعادة البناء الاقتصادي؟

a.      -من خلال المساواة الجندرية وإعطاء فرص للنساء للمشاركة الحقيقية في المجال الاقتصادي وأن يكون للنساء مناصب مهمة وقيادية ضمن أجهزة الدولة

b.     -تقديم المنح لدعم المشاريع الصغيرة التي تتبناه النساء سواء المتعلمات أو غير المتعلمات

c.      وجود أطر قانونية تحمي المرأة وتساعدها في المشاركة الاقتصادية

d.     العمل على التخلص من العادات والتقاليد المجحفة بحق المرأة وخاصة في المجتمعات العربية والتي تحد من مشاركتها

2-      ما هي الاختلافات بين وجهات نظر المرأة والنماذج الحالية للدولة والعالمية التي غالبًا ما يتم وضعها بعد الصراع؟

بالرغم من محاولة النساء لإثبات أنفسهن وأنهن قادرات أن يكن بانيات للمجتمع طبعا بمشاركة الرجل إلا أنه دائما ما يتم وضع عوائق أمام النساء الأمر الذي يجبر هن على بذل جهود مضاعفة للوصول إلى الأهداف

ولكن الاختلافات هو أن المرأة السورية وبسبب الحرب وظروف اللجوء أصبح لديها اصرا أكبر على المشاركة والتواجد الحقيقي وهي تعمل على ذلك منذ بداية الحرب

3-      ما هي الأمثلة الجيدة التي أدت إلى زيادة مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد وفي صنع القرار الاقتصادي ، بما في ذلك إعادة بناء الأولويات؟ ما الذي نجح؟ ما الذي لم ينجح؟ 

من الأمثلة الناجحة دور النساء القياديات السوريات  في منظمات المجتمع المدني وخاصة اللواتي يستهدفن النساء من أجل تمكينهن ليكن قادرات على الانتاج الاقتصادي الأمر الذي أدى إلى قدرة كثير من النساء بعد تمكينهن على فتح مشاريعهن الخاصة التي كانت في البداية تعتمد على معدات بسيطة ولكنها تطورت مع الزمن ومع زيادة الدخل المادي

وأما الأمثلة الغير الناجحة هو أنه في بلاد اللجوء تضطر النساء إلى الرضوخ لاستغلال أصحاب العمل (كعمل لساعات طويلة وبأجور زهيدة) وذلك بسبب صعوبة استخراج تصاريح العمل

4-      كيف يمكننا ضمان أن الانتعاش الاقتصادي السريع يزيد من الفرص الاقتصادية للمرأة؟ ما هي التدابير المحددة التي نجحت؟ ما العقبات التي واجهتها؟

عندما يوجد مساواة جندرية في كافة مجالات الدولة سيكون للمرأة فرص اقتصادية كبيرة

وقد يكون التركيز على المرأة المتعلمة والتي تعيش في المدينة واهمال دور المرأة الريفية والمرأة الغير المتعلمة من العقبات الكبيرة ويجب أخذه بعين الاعتبار وعدم التغافل عنه

5-      ماذا كان التأثير؟ ماذا حدث كان مختلفا؟ 

يوجد تأثير ايجابي في بعض النواحي ولكن للأسف التأثير السلبي أكبر فكثير من النساء السوريات في بلاد اللجوء يعانين من الفقر بسبب عدم ايلاءهم أي اهتمام أو مساندة أو اتاحة الفرص لهن 

6-      هل كان هناك أي دعم خارجي مهم بشكل خاص؟ هل هناك دروس للتعلم من توقيت هذا الدعم؟ ما الدعم الذي قد يكون ساعد ولكن لم يكن قادمًا؟ 

يوجد دعم خارجي مهم ولكن غالبا ما يتم توجيه الدعم لفئة واغفال الكثير من الفئات الأخرى

7-      كيف انخرط الرجال؟ ما الذي نجح؟

انخراط الرجال كان داعم ومكمل بشكل كبير، كتدريب النساء على ادارة الشؤون المالية وادارة المشاريع وغيرها من الأعمال التي كانت النساء بعيدة عنها ولا يسمح لها بالانخراط بها بالإضافة إلى عمل شراكات عمل ناجحة بين النساء والرجال

8-      هل يمكن للتكنولوجيات الجديدة أن تساعد على تمكين المرأة في حالات التعافي؟ إذا كان الأمر كذلك ، فكيف؟ هل يمكنهم المساعدة في ضمان الدمج؟

نعم يمكن للتكنلوجيا أن تساعد بشكل كبير من خلال الدروس المنشرة على الانترنيت والمشاركة في الفعاليات التي تتم أونلاين في أماكن مختلفة من العالم وتبادل الخبرات والتجارب

9-      كيف يمكننا ضمان إدراج احتياجات وآراء أكثر الفئات المهمشة؟ ما هي الأمثلة الجيدة على إدراج النساء ذوات الإعاقة، مجتمعات المثليين؟

نحن في جمعية زنوبيا نعمل في برامجنا دائما على أن يكون للنساء ذوي الاحتياجات الخاصة والمهمشات حيز كبير ضمن الأنشطة التي ننفذها والتي تساعدهن على أن يكن مشاركات فاعلات في المجتمع وهذا ساعد بشكل كبير على خلق مؤثرات مجتمعيات من هذه الفئة المهمشة

10-  ما هو الدور الذي يمكن أن تلعبه البيانات في تحسين مشاركة المرأة في الاقتصاد وفي صنع القرار الاقتصادي؟

دقة المعلومات تلعب دور كبير في سرعة وضمان وصول النساء للمشاركة الأساسية في الاقتصاد وصنع القرار الاقتصادي

Seniha Ayse Orellana

Thank you Mossarat for inviting me to share my thoughts in this forum. This is such an important topic. 

Inclusion of women in the post conflict economic decision making is goes beyond just addressing the practical and strategic needs of women impacted by conflicts but can help transform the structural inequalities between genders that existed prior, during and after the conflicts as well. Furthermore, we now know, without women’s participation sustainable peace and development cannot be achieved. Economic and financial inclusion of women are critical to unlock the potential for women’s businesses and small enterprises, which can then help reduce poverty of women and their families and increase their resiliency to income shocks, crises, and other challenges. Recent studies such as the Women Peace and Security (WPS) Index, (at https://giwps.georgetown.edu/the-index/) developed by Georgetown Institute for Women Peace and Security (GIWPS), have shown that there is a strong correlation between gender inequality and likelihood of conflict.

 

We still have a lot to overcome because women continue to face obstacles in participating in economic decision-making around the globe. GWIPS report published in 2018 report on “Women’s Financial Inclusion and Economic  Opportunities in Fragile and Conflict Affected States” published by GIWPS, (at https://giwps.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Womens-Financial-Inclusion-and-Economic-Opportunities-in-Fragile-and-Conflict-Affected-States.pdf) have identified many of these gaps and challenges. These gaps are particularly significant in fragile countries as well as countries experiencing conflict. In addition to low employment rates, burdens of unpaid work at home, they tend to have less control over property, less access education and health care. Because of the social, legal, and institutional challenges they face, they have less access to formal economic and financial resources and rely mostly on informal financial services. For example, according to a study, “only about two-thirds of women own a financial account, compared to about three in four men. In conflict-affected nations, women are 27 percent less likely than men to have a bank account.) (https://giwps.georgetown.edu/resource/womens-financial-inclusion-in-a-digital-world/)

Especially at times of conflict there are additional issues of insecurity, displacement, trauma as a result of losing their loved ones, among others which effects women’s quality of life.

Still, post-conflict environments can provide opportunities to address these systemic gender inequalities and create an economic recovery process that fosters gender equality, which will then contribute to overall peace and stability in the society. In order to address these challenges and create new opportunities for women there is a need understand the needs and priorities of women with a sensitivity to their unique contexts. When including women in decision-making processes I would like to highlight four points I think are critical:

1.     It is important to include women in all decision-making levels, both top-down and bottom-up. Especially including women from the local communities to participate in decisions that will affect them is critical. Without women’s participation of women, it is not possible to accurately understand and address women’s needs and priorities. Especially recovery programs need to make sure women are included at all stages of decision making: Planning, design, implementation, evaluation of the programs. Women’s voices need to be included especially in the budget discussions where budgets are decided, how the resources will be distributed. Also, women need to be involved in the critical assessment and evaluation of the programs.

2.     I cannot stress the importance of having an intersectional approach to women’s inclusion in economic decision making. Recognizing that women are not a homogenous group but there are significant differences among them and these differences impact their needs and priorities is crucial. Women with different ethnic, religious, racial backgrounds have different challenges and constrains as well as different opportunities. The intersection of different identities (such as gender, race, religion, class etc.) often result in women having significantly different needs and vulnerabilities as well as different levels of access to resources, status, and power in their communities. For example, women in urban areas and rural areas often have different priorities and needs. Therefore, it is important to ensure that decision making process includes women from different groups in order to identify their needs, vulnerabilities, priorities and goals. This requires a solid, well thought gender analysis

3.     Another key point I would like to make is the importance of a do no harm analysis. Each context has its own unique cultural/religious, social and economic factors. Each context has its own conflict drivers / fault-lines and connectors/opportunities. If we fail to take these into account we can have a negative impact on women’s needs, rights and participation. For example, some of the programs that aimed at improving women’s economic status have increased violence against women in various contexts, in other cases, some of the programs undermined traditional support mechanisms and networks which led to deterioration of women’s rights rather than helping them. Therefore, in addition to conducting a thorough gender analysis it is also important to conduct a sound do no harm analysis before identifying the right strategies and women’s groups need take a key part in this do no harm analysis.

4.     A new but an important area to consider is women’s inclusion in technology and innovation. In many contexts access to technology have been a major factor helping women develop their own businesses and improve their economic prospects. Therefore, investing in technology and developing new products and delivery tools to help women develop, maintain and manage their businesses is an important area to focus on in my opinion. New studies are showing that cell phones, mobile money options, digitize payments can accelerate women’s economic empowerment in entrepreneurship, business and agriculture, among others, especially in post-conflict contexts where mobility may pose a security challenge for some women. For example, GIWPS research (https://giwps.georgetown.edu/resource/womens-financial-inclusion-in-a-digital-world/) highlight “the promise of mobile phones to financially include women in fragile and conflict-affected countries” as it shows greater mobile phone usage among women is associated with much lower gender gaps in financial inclusion: a percentage point lower gender gap in mobile access is associated with a 0.94 lower percentage point financial inclusion gap.”

Mariyam Shakeela

Thank you for the opportunity to participate in this important discussion. My experience is that the marginalization and discrimination of women has intensified with the devastating consequences of COVID-19 pandemic.Just like in many other places, it is taking a disproportionate toll on women as economic and social pressure grows on everyone and the community. Most of the people who lost jobs or sent away were women and those males confined to home and not being used to that is leading to so many domestic issues affecting children and the whole household. Consequently, the rise of violence against women and domestic violence is intensifying and horrific while economic and social pressure, uncertainty and fear is driving many women to the brink of mental breakdown having to deal with more than their fair share of care work domestic work apart from worrying feeding the kids and family. 

Those in health profession find it hard to cope with added pressures at work coupled with concerns at home and juggling between both and burdening themselves far more than they should without the support from husbands. 

But the pandemic has also offered opportunities for women to engage in economic activities through the digital revolution that is emerging without being burdened with discrimination which they get subjected to at physical work spaces.These opportunities are positively transforming the entire work space and market into a digital space with e-commerce, internet marketing, and other technological innovations enhancing economic prospects fro women. The digital transformation in businesses and economic activities has also created opportunities fro those women who were subjected to mind-shifts pertaining to a more conservative form of islam to get engaged in business activities and get empowered. 

Being island communities with geographical challenges it is important to recognise that women is these islands are not homogenous and are quite diverse in their needs, experiences, priorities and vulnerabilities. They have different levels of access to resources, status and power in their communities and hence it is important to ascertain their priorities and goals in each context and carefully identify the conflict drivers and connectors, economic enhancers and possibilities.

Equally important is to note that women's participation is important not only for economic recovery and growth alone after the pandemic, but also for sustainable peace and development. Therefore working on economic empowerment of women is essential for recovery and gender equality in particular. 
 

It is definite that unless women are placed at the decision making tables in regards, to recovery, conflict resolution, economic strategies, women's interests and their special needs and concerns would be bypassed in policy and planning and implementation of those policies.

So our organization is working to create awareness and encourage women to move towards digital businesses and embrace technological advances for their businesses to grow or for them to develop business ideas and embark on new journeys towards economic empowerment. 

 

Mariyam Shakeela

Thank you Mossarat. You are an amazing woman doing so much and educating us. This forum is teaching us a lot

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

Dear Ayse, Thank you for your impressive  contribution  to this consultation.  The research study references you shared are very helpful to further understand and enhance the knowledge in this regard.  I really appreciate your effort in putting up such rich and comprehensive write up.

Your four points are very pertinent and the suggestions are very well thought out.  Inclusion of women in budget discussion is no doubt important and can give women the power to ask for allocating funds to women priorities and issues at least. The question here arises how to get a seat at the table? How can women make their ways into these financial and economic related debates, planning and decision making

I totally agree with the point of intersectional approach to women’s inclusion in economic decision making. Usually the needs and priorities of women from different religion, ethnic, social and racial groups are never addressed due to the absence of women representative from them.  Those who represent us in these decision making bodies are not from amongst us and those who know the issues on the ground never get the chance to represent us. You are suggesting a well thought gender analysis for more inclusive decision making.

Again you have touched upon another crucial point but sometimes the most ignored one is the ‘do no harm analysis’ and the example you gave is so close to many of us working in the field. You have voiced the concern of many of the women peace makers. Following ‘do no harm’ principal, my organization PAIMAN Trust after the IDPs crisis in Swat Pakistan put a condition in our economic recovery program that save your forest and don’t use woods for burning rather provided them with solar burners and other incentives. Thank you for raising it and suggesting the inclusion of women in the do no harm analysis.  

Another great suggestion of inclusion of women in technology and innovation is the need of the time. Many innovative women entrepreneur lag behind men due to lack of knowledge of technology, use of digital and other social media. Thank you again for sharing the research reference which is a great write up on the subject.

Your very relevant and rich intervention is setting the tone for this final week discussion.

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

It is so heartening to see women already making use of digital space for their businesses. Ayse suggested the same in her discussion points that women entrepreneur should be given knowledge of use of digital space, technology etc.

You have raised two very important points; one that digital space provides non-discriminatory arena to women and the second that it has created space for Muslim women who strictly adhered to religious practice of avoiding contacts with men in their work places etc. This is really an important take away and am sure will help in devising strategies for empowering Muslim women in particular in best utilization of digital  technology and space for their economic endeavors.

Shakeela,  you being a very successful business woman yourself and leading many social entrepreneurs as well. It would be great if  you give suggestions of how to increase  participation of women in the economy and in economic decision making, including eg rebuilding priorities and can give some examples of what worked? What didn’t work? 

swedi bilombele
Dear Ms. Vera Damjanovic Compliment of the day Please, this is an acknowledgement of receipt about your conversation received recently in which you have indicated me to share in my opinion on activities and measures that should be taken in order to prevent the return to traditional norms after conflict end suggestions on how international actors can contribute more. See the activities enumerated below in my opinions and the examples concerning the traditional mechanisms on the prohibited below mentioned: - Intensify champagnes of vulgarizations - Create new practices to bring women closer to those in power, - Establish the “Baraza” of women in the environment - Strengthen the means of raising awareness among women regarding their specific problems. Long-term: - - organize practices of public debates on the problems experienced by women, - Promote women's solidarity through consultation structures which can gradually lead them to forge a common and critical reflection on their daily reality - Animation and information on the consequences of the traditional ban - Create literacy centers discouraged schools reserved only for girls - Promote the care of girls in education - Sensitize churches to promote women to positions of responsibility - Revision of the family code - Strict application of written laws as parallel courts. Regarding the traditional mechanisms on the banned below for example: - The non-participation of women in the allocation of the budget, - Marital authorization - The ban on women speaking in church assemblies, - The removal of the woman from the management of the church - The location in the church by gender - Legal incapacity of married women - Divorce - Adultery - Prostitution With multiple problems, multiple solutions, the problem of inequalities between men and women is a question that has its causes, which is why, as Georges Gurvitch says, the explanations of a social fact are found in other facts social. This leads us to deduce that social facts are linked and we must, for effective and lasting solutions, involve women in the analysis and resolution of their problems as well as in the development of case-specific strategies. To this end, our strategies are only avenues for reflection to be carried out with the parties concerned.
Fanta Wali

Rôles des femmes dans la prise de décision économique après un conflit

Les femmes peuvent jouer un rôle particulièrement important dans la prévention et le règlement des conflits, elles peuvent aussi favoriser la reconstruction après un conflit et la consolidation de la paix.

La région de diffa traverse, depuis 2014, une période durant laquelle les traumatismes sociaux qui ont marqué beaucoup des familles.

 

Dans ce contexte, les femmes ont un rôle essentiel, vital même. En effet, beaucoup d’entre elles sont désormais seules pour éduquer leurs enfants, faire vivre leurs familles ou simplement pour faire face à la vie et à ses difficultés.

Elles portent en grande partie les efforts et les chances de prospérité de toute une nation.

Toutefois, avant que les femmes puissent jouer un rôle décisif dans le développement du pays, il faut que leur pouvoir, non seulement politique et social mais aussi économique, soit renforcé. Nous savons que la pauvreté est la plus grande entrave au renforcement du pouvoir des femmes.

Le Niger s’est doté d’une constitution progressiste au sujet du rôle de la femme et de l’égalité entre hommes et femmes.

Un des grands défis à relever est la réduction, voire l’éradication de la pauvreté, qui malheureusement touche majoritairement les femmes. Or, la reconstruction ne peut se réaliser pleinement que si tous les acteurs (hommes et femmes) s’y impliquent corps et âme.

Le Gouvernement offre des opportunités que les femmes devraient saisir pour s’épanouir au sein de la société. Parmi ces opportunités, citons: la participation accrue des femmes aux instances de prise de décision à travers la mise en œuvre de sa politique genre et le PDES et la constitution.

L’autonomisation des femmes dans les situations de crise et de conflit doit être l’un des outils les plus importants dans un processus de paix. Faire appel à des médiatrices compétentes ou à des réseaux établis peut être un bon point de départ pour que les dirigeants se rendent compte combien il est important d’inclure l’ensemble de la population.

Les femmes doivent participer aux négociations de paix et faire partie du processus de transition après les conflits. 

Les femmes ne doivent pas rester invisibles dans les processus décisionnels. 

Nous savons que la pauvreté a un visage féminin et sans aborder les questions de disparités économiques nous ne pouvons pas utiliser efficacement le style et la structure des femmes dans la politique ou les processus de paix. 

Sans un soutien économique solide les femmes ne peuvent pas rivaliser dans un environnement inégal où la richesse est essentiellement monopolisée par quelques-uns qui sont en fait majoritairement des hommes, les sources de financement doivent être garanties pour les femmes. 

Le financement pourrait être considéré comme le point principal en incluant les femmes dans les processus politiques

La plupart des femmes, du fait de l’analphabétisme, ne connaissent pas leurs droits et sont de ce fait privées du pouvoir de décision, de gestion et du contrôle des ressources et des biens susceptibles de leur appartenir. Elles subissent donc très souvent le poids des décisions imposées par des tiers, les décisions de justice, lorsqu’elles existent, pouvant être contestées par la « grande famille », surtout en matière de succession.

 

La femme est présente dans tous les secteurs productifs de l’économie et domine l’économie informelle, elle fait vivre la plus large partie de la population : petits commerces de produits vivriers, de produits de première nécessité, de vêtements bon marché, etc.

Toute cette activité économique est financée en grande partie sur fonds propres, sans crédits bancaires significatifs. Les femmes organisent des formes de solidarité financière associatives à travers des tontines et diverses formes de structures d’épargne et de crédit, mais il se pose le problème de lignes significatives et structurées de refinancement.

Les femmes se battent pour vivre, survivre et faire vivre leurs familles. Puisqu’elles constituent la majorité de la population, l’absence de politique pour accroître leur efficacité économique et sociale, en vue de les sortir de leur statut de fait de « citoyen de seconde zone », est ainsi contre-productive pour l’ensemble du pays.

En conclusion seule la reconstitution d’un environnement socio-économique fiable est l’une des conditions du succès de la reconstruction post conflit.

Ce n’est que dans un tel contexte que nous pouvons mettre une place des conditions nécessaires d’une paix durable.

 

Réponses des questions posées :

 

  1. Comment les femmes accordent-elles la priorité à la reconstruction : En participant à part entière dans tous les mécanismes et processus de paix ;

Elles doivent s’impliquer dans le processus de reconstruction.

  1. Quelles sont les différences entre les perspectives des femmes et les modèles étatiques et internationaux existants qui sont souvent institués après le conflit :

A -Opportunités nationales elles concernent :

  • Un cadre juridique national favorable propice à l’épanouissement de la femme à travers l’arsenal juridique disponible ;
  •  Une Constitution en faveur de l’égalité des sexes

 

B- Conventions et traités des Nations Unies :

 

  • Convention sur l’élimination de toute forme de discrimination à l’Egard des femmes (CEDEF), New York, 18 décembre 1979 ;
  • La résolution 1325 de 2000

C- les perspectives des femmes :

  • En raison du conflit qui persiste, les femmes se sont engagées dans les activités de transformation des conflits, de consolidation de la paix et de cohésion sociale. Activistes de la première heure, elles ont mené prioritairement des activités de plaidoyer, sensibilisation, médiation et prévention ;
  • Elles sont socialement investies, avec l’appui de leurs maris, frères et pères les sphères occupées par les hommes, en dehors des domiciles.
  • Leurs motivations, d’abord individuelles (survie de la famille) se sont traduites en motivations collectives grâce à leur adhésion à des groupes structurés.
  1. Quels sont les bons exemples qui ont conduit à une participation accrue des femmes à l’économie et à la prise de décisions économiques, y compris par exemple la reconstruction des priorités :
  • Les séries de formation et de sensibilisation qui ont amené les femmes à une prise de conscience ;
  • La formation des groupements d’intérêts économiques ; les tontines ; la création d’activités génératrices des revenus sont les exemples qui ont fonctionnés.  
  • Les exemples qui n’ont pas marchés : les femmes n’ont pas accès directement aux ressources financiers ; seules les refugiées bénéficient d’un appui financier et alimentaire.
  1.  Comment pouvons –nous nous assurer que la reprise économique rapide augmente les opportunités économiques des femmes ?:
  • A travers un processus de relèvement basé sur une relance des activités économiques affectées, qui, aboutissent à un accroissement du taux d’emploi.
  • En consentant et en suscitant des initiatives spontanées positives ;
  • Faire un suivi de proximité ;

    Les mesures qui ont marchés sont des formations dans       différents corps de métier avec appui en kits de démarrage.

Les obstacles se trouvent souvent au niveau du ciblage et le choix des métiers

  1. Quel a été l’impact ? que s’est-il passé de diffèrent ?

Il y’a eu un redémarrage des activités et un engouement au sein de la population concernée.

 

  1. Y a-t-il eu un soutien extérieur particulièrement important ?  Y a t- il des leçons à tirer du calendrier de ce soutien ? quel soutien aurait pu aider mais n’a pas été fourni ?
  •  oui la plus grande partie du soutien vient des partenaires extérieurs .
  • Comme leçons à tirer c’est d’associer les concernées dans la conception des différents appuis
  1. Comment les hommes ont-ils été ? Qu’est ce qui a fonctionné ?
  • Pour que les hommes soient engagés il faut les inclure dans tout le processus faire une intégration de la dimension genre pour éviter certains problèmes aux seins des ménages.
  1. Les nouvelles technologies peuvent-elles aider à l’autonomisation des femmes dans les situations de rétablissement ? Si c’est le cas, comment ? peuvent-ils contribuer à assurer l’inclusion ?

Oui les NTIC jouent un grand rôle dans l’autonomisation de la femme à condition qu’on leur apprenne à travers une campagne d’alphabétisation pour leur apprendre à lire à écrire et à calculer

 

9 - Comment pouvons-nous nous assurer que les besoins et les opinions des plus marginalisés sont inclus ? Quels sont les bons exemples d’inclusion des femmes handicapées, des communautés LGBTQI ?

A travers une analyse rapide genre on saura si les différents groupes concernés ont été pris en compte et cette même analyse permettra de prendre en compte les femmes en situation de handicap et des autres groupes (LGBTQI).

10 –Quel rôle les données peuvent- elles jouer pour améliorer la participation des femmes à l’économie et à la prise de décisions économiques.

On n’est pas sûre de répondre à cette question au risque de passer à côté parce que là les données ne sont pas spécifiées. L’autonomisation économique des femmes reste conditionnée par des normes sociales qui limitent le contrôle des femmes sur les ressources économiques et la prise de décision sur les ressources financières dans les ménages.

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

Thank you Ahlem for responding to the questions based on your own experience as a Syrian woman. You have  raised the same issue raised by many women from time to time; strong and effective legal frameworks for women economic empowerment and participation be in place  and the issue of unjust customs and traditions that discriminates against women at all levels. It is the case of every society and not limited to Middle East only.

Ahlem, as Syrian refugee in Turkey you have come a long way and now have an established NGO, Zenobia organization and a good business. I would like you to share how you overcome the obstacles that you have mentioned in your post and what advice you will give to other women. Secondly, can new technologies help women’s empowerment in recovery situations? If so, how? Can they help in ensuring inclusion of women?

Zenobia Association for Syrian Women

عزيزتي مسرات قديم أعتذر عن التأخر بالرد

-من خلال تجربتنا نحن نرى أن إدراج الرجال في المشاريع الصغيرة التي تتولى زمامها النساء أمر مهم جدا وسوف يساهم في نجاح المرأة وتفوقها في هذه المشاريع نتيجة الدعم والمشاركة الحقيقية

-أما بالنسبة لموضوع كيفية التعامل مع التحديات في بلد اللجوء فإننا لا نستطيع تجاوز القوانين المحددة لنا كلاجئين ونحاول التأقلم معها وبالمقابل فإننا نعمل على مناصرة القضايا التي من شأنها أن تنصف اللاجئين دافعين إلى تغيير بعض القوانين التي تسبب استغلال وإجحاف كبير لنا كلاجئين مع العلم أنها من أكبر التحديات التي تؤثر على استدامة عملنا كمنظمات ناشطة

-النصائح التي نقدمها للنساء ونحث عليها دائما في جلساتنا ولقاءاتنا معهن هو أن المرأة أساس في هذا المجتمع ويجب أن تعمل على تطوير ذاتها ولا تنتظر المساعدة من أحد وخاصة أن التكنلوجيا أصبحت متاحة بشكل كبير وتساعد المرأة وذلك فيما يخص التوعية والتمكين المعرفي أما فيما يخص التمكين الاقتصادي فدخول سوق العمل البسيط والاعتماد على الذات ذو الاستقلال الاقتصادي له انعكاس كبير على تمكين المرأة في شتى المجالات الأخرى خاصة الاجتماعية

- من الأمثلة أن التقنيات الجديدة تساعد على التعافي هي قدرة النساء على المشاركة في الفعاليات والأنشطة في مختلف أنحاء العالم وإثبات ذاتها بالإضافة إلى إدارة المشاريع الخاصة والدراسة في الجامعات العالمية عن بعد وحتى التوظيف وإدارة العمل عبر الانترنيت

-يمكن ضمان إدراج النساء عن طريق التحفيز المستمر واطلاعهم على قصص نجاح نساء أخريات

 

laila yemen

فعلا للاسف فان اطراف الصراع والحكومات تعمل دائما على حصر عمل النساء في قطاعات محددة فقط  و تضع العدي دمن العراقيل امامهن لتبقى النساء في مواقع المتلقيات للمعونات فقط بل ووصل بهم الحال الى ادانة كل القوانين الداعية لتمكين النساء بحجة انها مخالفة للدين والعمل على اغلاقها وحشد الراي العام ضدها والاخطر من ذلك هو تعبئة عقول الشباب بهذه الالفكار المتطرفة ضد الاناث وهذه ما سيعود بدور المراة للوارء خصوصا في ضل عدم حصول النساء على الدعم والمساندة الدولية التي تشجعهن على المضي قدما وعدم الاستسلام, ونحتاج اولا الى تشجيع النساء على كسر هذه الحواجز وهذا بالفعل ما نعم لعلية في منظمتنا من خلال اقامة العديد من المشاريع سواء التوعوية او مشاريع التمكين الاقتصادي والدعم النفسي للنساء وخاصة المعنفات  وغيرهن حيث نعمل على تحفز النساء للخوض في العمل في مجالات كانت تقتصر على الذكور فقط تقديم الاستشارات اللازمة والمصاحبة لهن منذ بداية التفكير في المشروع الخاص بهن او العمل الذي لديهن الرغبة في العمل فيه الى ان يعتمدن على انفسهن حيث نعتمد على التعليم الفني والمهني بنفس الوقت وهذا بالفعل ما جعل العلم اكثر تاثيرا الا ان الاستمرار في تقديم عملنا كمنظمة تقودها النساء اكثر صعوبة في ضل ضعف القدرة على الحصول على الدعم واللازم للاستمرار و التحديات التي نواجهها من سلطة الامر الواقع التمشددة التي ترفض تمكين النساء 

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

Fanta, great contribution! You have shared a lot that can be discussed further.

It is great to learn that PDES, constitution and your gender policy has increased participation of women in decision-making bodies. Hope Algerian women are taking advantage of this situation.

You have made some very important points that recourses are required for women to effectively participate in politics as leaders or contest elections. The other point that you made is true for many of the societies across the globe that women don’t know their rights and hence have no power on their own assets and resource due to illiteracy.

I would like you to share that in the presence of gender responsive mechanism in the form of your constitution, gender policy framework etc, are there good number of women in Algerian economic decision making bodies. If yes, would you like to share some success stories of what difference they are making and how their contribution has transformed the process or policies in favor of women?

Fanta, great contribution! You have shared a lot that can be discussed further.

It is great to learn that PDES, constitution and your gender policy has increased participation of women in decision-making bodies. Hope Algerian women are taking advantage of this situation.

You have made some very important points that recourses are required for women to effectively participate in politics as leaders or contest elections. The other point that you made is true for many of the societies across the globe that women don’t know their rights and hence have no power on their own assets and resource due to illiteracy.

I would like you to share that in the presence of gender responsive mechanism in the form of your constitution, gender policy framework etc, are there good number of women in Algerian economic decision making bodies. If yes, would you like to share some success stories of what difference they are making and how their contribution has transformed the process or policies in favor of women?

Fanta, great contribution! You have shared a lot that can be discussed further.

It is great to learn that PDES, constitution and your gender policy has increased participation of women in decision-making bodies. Hope Algerian women are taking advantage of this situation.

You have made some very important points that resources are required for women to effectively participate in politics as leaders or contest elections. The other point that you made is true for many of the societies across the globe that women don’t know their rights and hence have no power on their own assets and resource due to illiteracy.

I would like you to share that in the presence of gender responsive mechanism in the form of your constitution, gender policy framework etc, are there good number of women in Algerian economic decision making bodies. If yes, would you like to share some success stories of what difference they are making and how their contribution has transformed the process or policies in favor of women?

 

Ezabir Ali

I would like to share my experience from Kashmir. Like many other societies around the world, Kashmiri society is patriarchal one, where Men are generally considered as the main bread-earners of the family.

The armed struggle which emerged in the late 1980's in Kashmir had a large impact on the people of Kashmir in general and on women and children in particular. Rather women have been the worst sufferers of the conflict.

In the 1990’s many forced disappearances of men took place, which resulted in a group of women, known as “half-widows”

As a result of the disappearance of the husband, who in most cases happened to be the sole earning member of the family, the economic burden of shouldering the responsibilities of running a household fell on the shoulders of these women.

Most of these women were illiterate, having no particular skill, as such they were forced to work as unskilled labourers.

Moreover, since the husbands of half-widows were not officially “declared as dead”, there remained a great deal of confusion over inheritance, property rights and bank transfers-all of which required death certificates which obviously they did not have.

As such these women faced, psycho- socio and economic problems.

Being single women, the women had to face many problems within and outside the family, as family members would accuse them of being women of bad character- which added to the stigma of widowhood, leading to many of them going through  PTSD.

I have share the above example of half widows from Kashmir, as I have been working on some of the issues and challenges been faced by them after the disappearance of their husband, like the period of “Wait” for re-marriage as there was ambiguity on the number of years of wait, (from 4 to 7, to 9 to 90 years) for a half widow before she could consider marriage (if she so desires) and also on their property rights,  as they get deprived of it after their husband’s disappearance)

Due to our intervention,  in 2014,  we brought together Ulema from different sects/ school of thoughts and made them re-consider the number of years  of wait, being propagated. The Ulema finally passed a decree that remarriage for a half widow was permissible after four years of wait from the time of disappearance of her husband and also later passed a consensus statement on the property rights. 

So I would like to share that while conflict does impact women to a larger extent, the patriarchal society we live in, also plays an important role in inflicting grievous wounds on the psyche of the women, making them psycho-socio and economically dependent. This is what I have observed through my work and engagement with women since last more than two and a half decades. 

I have seen, the scars of the conflict go much deeper than physical wounds and these are usually borne/seen on psycho-socio and economic impact on women. 

Ezabir Ali 

Founder/Secretary EHSAAS 

 

Rina Kedem

The comments, experiences and thoughts shared here are important and useful. Thank you. I hope this conversation will have a platform to be continued.

I wanted to share some of our good practices learned during years of directing social-environmental- economic initiatives with Palestinians, Jordanians, and Israelis. We combine community development, environmental cooperation, conflict exploration and entrepreneurship in our work.

We work in the social-economic and geographic peripheries of the three regions. Our process includes mapping the needs, problems as well as assets, gifts and passions of individuals and institutions in the community's landscape. We then explore how to turn the problems into projects and fundraise according to these themes and project ideas. We plan and implement these community-based projects while the community members learn project planning and management. Many of our initiatives are women led and are WPS based.

The role of the women in our projects are extremely pronounced and respected as the social engineers of their societies and the heart of their communities. 

Below are examples of two women led-initiatives that were born out of such a needs and assets mapping process:

https://www.blessyourhands.org/

https://desert-matters.com/

Both of these are transboundary – women led initiatives in conflict- and post-conflict conditions. The political complexities are not ignored or normalized. We create safe and healthy places to support our ability to handle this complexity. We have noticed a strong shift  in our participants- many of them changed a certain political view or belief about the "other" to a positive attitude and move away from more extreme positions. In addition, participants express a growing willingness to find non-violent ways to solve the political conflict in the Middle East.

One of the challenges we experience regards the maintenance and care of business initiatives post- inauguration phase. I find many donors or funds support the initialization process, but it is hard to find funds that support the after "birth" of a women led business. The two years post-initiation phase are of the most crucial to the survival and success of a business and we are seeking advice on this matter.

Thank you for initiating this space for growth, sharing and meaningful exchange.

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

Ezabir, thank you for sharing your experience from Kashmir. You have worked very hard to bring out this issue of ‘half widows’ into public domain and finally succeeded in getting the decree. In Islam a woman can re-marry after four years if her husband disappears or is missing but in conservative societies, unfortunately this is not considered a problem.

As we understand majority of women in Kashmir know many crafts and have been contributing to Kashmir’s economy. Ezabir, has there been any economic recovery opportunities in the conflict ridden and affected Indian side of Kashmir. If yes, What specific measures have worked? What obstacles have women met?

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

Rina, I appreciate your contribution to this consultation. You operate in three different countries..where conflict never ends. You have implemented many successful women economic program as you have given the reference also. Would you like to share any good examples that have led to increased participation of women in the economy and in economic decision making? Please feel free to share some priorities recommendation based on the context where you work.

Mottee Prisheela

Technologies will definitely help women empowerment in recovery situation.  However, we have to be realist that such situation will apply only to countries and region where women have access to technologies.

Where there is access to technologies we can apply e-entrepreneurship and help women to showcase their products and makes sales. e-Volunteering can also be implemented to give support to women through online counselling, psychological support and legal advice.

Time is now to invest in women and to do so countries will have to not only invest in techonologies but also give the access to women.

In Mauritius, during and post covid19, women entrepreneurs are using facebook to showcase all their products and have been working from home. Post covid19 the women have prefered to continue to work which is more cost effective.

Data will play an important role with regards to women participation and economic decision making. Detailed data will help to implement well designed policies. Collection of data need to start with collection of vital statistics which will help each and every women to have access to a unique identity.

The legal identity in turn will give access to women concerning all benefits from national government and become financially independent.

Once we have a solid identity database, we can move forward for in depth data collection to design policies.

 

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

Mottee, I am glad that women in Maurituis are making use of technology and intend to do so in the post COVID era as well. You made a very realistic point that access to technology is crucial for empowering women economically. In addition to access to, the use of technology is equally important. Thank you for sharing your reflection regarding usage of data collection for well designed policies. We all know economic opportunities can increase women’s agency and decision-making power if the existing gender data gaps are addressed. How and when that can be done is a question?

 

Erna Nurkholida Hasan

Pertama saya sampaikan banyak terimakasih kepada UNDP yang telah mengajak saya bergabung dalam diskusi yang menarik ini. Diskusi ini menarik karena memperjuangkan wanita khususnya dan manusia pada umumnya. Saya juga memohon maaf baru dapat bergabung dalam diskusi ini karena adanya kesibukan yang harus saya kerjakan. Mohon maklum adanya.

Berikut ini saya akan menjawab secara tekhnis dan langsung pada poinnya untuk mempersingkat waktu. saya akan memberikan langsung jawaban dengan mencantumkan pertanyaannya.

  1. Bagaimana perempuan memprioritaskan rekonstruksi ekonomi? Perempuan dapat dilibatkan dalam rekontruksi ekonomi dengan cara memberikan pendampingan dan pelatihan tentang pengunaan uang digital dan transaksi online.
  2. Apa perbedaan antara perspektif perempuan dan model negara dan internasional yang ada yang sering dilembagakan pasca konflik? Negara dan masyarakat internasional wanita adalah objek; sedangkan perempuan memandang dirinya sendiri sebgai subjek atau pelaku usaha.
  3. Apa contoh bagus yang ada yang telah menyebabkan peningkatan partisipasi perempuan dalam ekonomi dan dalam pengambilan keputusan ekonomi, termasuk misalnya membangun kembali prioritas?contoh pengambilan keputusan ekonomi yang meningkatkan partisipasi perempuan adalah pabrik dibuka, perempuan buka warung makanan, toko kelontong. sekolah dibuka menyebabkan kantin dibuka dan pasar hidup kembali. karena mayoritas pedagang dipasar tradiisional adalah wanita. Apa yang berhasil? Apa yang tidak berhasil? 
  4. Bagaimana kita dapat memastikan bahwa pemulihan ekonomi yang cepat meningkatkan peluang ekonomi perempuan? pabrik tekstil buka, usaha kecil hijab berjalan. Apa tindakan spesifik yang berhasil? industri kecil hijab, kuliner dan kerajinan tangan. Apa kendala yang Anda temui? dilarang berkerumun.
  5. Apa dampaknya? industri macet. pengangguran, banyak kekerasan pada perempuan dan anak. apa yang terjadi berbeda? 
  6. Apakah ada dukungan dari luar yang sangat penting? ada. yakni pemberian vaksin kekebalan tubuh.Apakah ada pelajaran untuk dipelajari dari waktu dukungan itu? banyaknya virus covid yang menyebar dan belum adanya vaksin membuat orang takut dan dilarang berkarya.Dukungan apa yang mungkin membantu tetapi tidak muncul? 
  7. Bagaimana pria bertunangan? Apa yang berhasil?
  8. Bisakah teknologi baru membantu pemberdayaan perempuan dalam situasi pemulihan?  tekhnologi sangat membuat wanita menjadi maju dan terlibat dalam usaha masa kini Jika ya, bagaimana caranya? melalui pelatihan uang digital dan ransaksi elektronik.Bisakah mereka membantu memastikan inklusi? tekhnologi sangat rmah pada komunitas ini.
  9. Bagaimana kita memastikan bahwa kebutuhan dan pandangan orang yang paling terpinggirkan dimasukkan? Contoh bagus apa yang ada termasuk perempuan cacat, komunitas LGBTQI?
  10. Peran apa yang dapat dimainkan data dalam meningkatkan partisipasi perempuan dalam ekonomi dan dalam pengambilan keputusan ekonomi? pemberian bantuan pelatihan uang digital bagi pemilik akun jual beli di facebook ataupun di online shop

Tambahkan komentar baru

  1. Bagaimana perempuan memprioritaskan rekonstruksi ekonomi?
  2. Apa perbedaan antara perspektif perempuan dan model negara dan internasional yang ada yang sering dilembagakan pasca konflik? 
  3. Apa contoh bagus yang ada yang telah menyebabkan peningkatan partisipasi perempuan dalam ekonomi dan dalam pengambilan keputusan ekonomi, termasuk misalnya membangun kembali prioritas? Apa yang berhasil? Apa yang tidak berhasil? 
  4. Bagaimana kita dapat memastikan bahwa pemulihan ekonomi yang cepat meningkatkan peluang ekonomi perempuan? Apa tindakan spesifik yang berhasil? Apa kendala yang Anda temui?
  5. Apa dampaknya? apa yang terjadi berbeda? 
  6. Apakah ada dukungan dari luar yang sangat penting? Apakah ada pelajaran untuk dipelajari dari waktu dukungan itu? Dukungan apa yang mungkin membantu tetapi tidak muncul? 
  7. Bagaimana pria bertunangan? Apa yang berhasil?
  8. Bisakah teknologi baru membantu pemberdayaan perempuan dalam situasi pemulihan? Jika ya, bagaimana caranya? Bisakah mereka membantu memastikan inklusi?
  9. Bagaimana kita memastikan bahwa kebutuhan dan pandangan orang yang paling terpinggirkan dimasukkan? Contoh bagus apa yang ada termasuk perempuan cacat, komunitas LGBTQI?
  10. Peran apa yang dapat dimainkan data dalam meningkatkan partisipasi perempuan dalam ekonomi dan dalam pengambilan keputusan ekonomi?

Tambahkan komentar baru

  1. Bagaimana perempuan memprioritaskan rekonstruksi ekonomi?
  2. Apa perbedaan antara perspektif perempuan dan model negara dan internasional yang ada yang sering dilembagakan pasca konflik? 
  3. Apa contoh bagus yang ada yang telah menyebabkan peningkatan partisipasi perempuan dalam ekonomi dan dalam pengambilan keputusan ekonomi, termasuk misalnya membangun kembali prioritas? Apa yang berhasil? Apa yang tidak berhasil? 
  4. Bagaimana kita dapat memastikan bahwa pemulihan ekonomi yang cepat meningkatkan peluang ekonomi perempuan? Apa tindakan spesifik yang berhasil? Apa kendala yang Anda temui?
  5. Apa dampaknya? apa yang terjadi berbeda? 
  6. Apakah ada dukungan dari luar yang sangat penting? Apakah ada pelajaran untuk dipelajari dari waktu dukungan itu? Dukungan apa yang mungkin membantu tetapi tidak muncul? 
  7. Bagaimana pria bertunangan? Apa yang berhasil?
  8. Bisakah teknologi baru membantu pemberdayaan perempuan dalam situasi pemulihan? Jika ya, bagaimana caranya? Bisakah mereka membantu memastikan inklusi?
  9. Bagaimana kita memastikan bahwa kebutuhan dan pandangan orang yang paling terpinggirkan dimasukkan? Contoh bagus apa yang ada termasuk perempuan cacat, komunitas LGBTQI?
  10. Peran apa yang dapat dimainkan data dalam meningkatkan partisipasi perempuan dalam ekonomi dan dalam pengambilan keputusan ekonomi?

Tambahkan komentar baru

 

 

Ezabir Ali

Dear Mossarat, Kashmir is renowned all over the world for its Arts and crafts heritage, which flourished under the various dynasties that ruled Northern India over many centuries.

The long-standing conflict in Kashmir has had a huge impact on the Handicrafts and crafts persons, mostly women of the State, who impoverished by the conflict had resorted to craft manufacturing to support themselves and their families. Women thereby are central to this work.

Unfortunately there are no measures for economic recovery. Kashmir has been facing lockdowns after lockdowns, not just the current lockdown due to the Pandemic.

UN must look into the deplorable socio-economic situation of women in Kashmir who have been bearing the brunt of the conflict and suffering in silence.

Angela Scalpello

The Business Council for Peace, “Bpeace” (https://www.bpeace.org/) was founded in 2002 with a mission to grow businesses in post-conflict countries like Rwanda and Afghanistan and to do so with a bias towards women-owned or led businesses. Simply stated, "More jobs mean less violence.®”

Eighteen years later this international coalition of courageous, committed, optimistic business leaders has a proven track record in helping increase participation of women in economic activity and businesses grow revenue. It does so through the Bpeace model of uniting high-quality business consulting by volunteers (we call them “Skillanthropists”) with proven and promising local job creators (“Fast Runners”). This consulting support helps them break through the barriers to growth and job creation. In providing more jobs, these businesses lift individual lives, their families, their community, and society at large.

Today Bpeace is working in Central America, specifically in El Salvador and Guatemala. We continue to work by deploying our 400+ Skillanthropists. These volunteer business experts envision a world where job creators, who believe in women’s economic empowerment, can accelerate historically violent communities up the path to peace and prosperity. We believe jobs provide dignity and economic stability, which in turn stabilize families and communities, cutting the oxygen to gangs, terrorism, and other forms of violence.

Of the 61 businesses Bpeace currently advises in Guatemala and El Salvador, 61% are women-owned or led and 50% of the employees are women. Our strategy has a foundation in World Bank research showing that women entrepreneurs over-perform in economic growth and poverty reduction, despite their lack of capital and cultural constraints.

What’s our approach: 

Bpeace’s approach consists of four strategies: 1) Clarify the structural ambiguity that holds women back; 2) Make the business case for women in leadership; 3) Apply a gender lens to build profitability; and 4) Teach Fast Runners especially women how to find and use their voice. These strategies are illustrated with examples of three Fast Runners.

1.    Clarify the structural ambiguity that holds women back

Family businesses are common among Bpeace’s portfolio and bring with them a range of cultural issues, including a lack of clarity around roles and responsibilities, leadership succession, etc.

Bpeace Skillanthropists tackle this head-on to remove the barriers to a female business leader’s success.

Fast Runner Aixa, https://vimeo.com/395983398 in this video, was an executive at a family-owned hospital and medical laboratory business founded by her father. Although he increasingly shifted responsibility to Aixa and her siblings, roles and responsibilities were unclear and overlapping, leading to confusion among staff and frustration for Aixa.

Bpeace, through our Skillanthropists, played a key role in building Aixa’s self-confidence through leadership development training and worked with family members to clearly define roles and responsibilities that established Aixa as an equal partner with her siblings.

2.    Make the business case for women in leadership

Bpeace Skillanthropists know that the most effective way to mentor women forward is by making the business case for their leadership.

Helping colleagues realize a woman executive’s value to the company creates sustainable change even inside the most traditional companies.

Fast Runner Flor, https://vimeo.com/395985930 in this video, is on the leadership team of a major airline ground handling and maintenance service business in El Salvador–a traditionally male-dominated industry. In charge of Human Resources, Flor and her team were too often relegated to simply filling open positions, rather than shaping a comprehensive talent strategy.

With coaching by Bpeace Skillanthropist and organizational development expert Angela Scalpello, Flor learned the ways in which Human Resources can be a strategic partner to all other business units. Armed with this information, she was able to articulate her team’s value to her colleagues, earning their respect and assuming a more strategic role in the company.

3.    Apply a gender lends to build profitability

Different cultures give rise to different gender roles; and just about anywhere, men and women have different priorities.

Businesses that address the implications of gender can increase profitability and become more sustainable

In countries where Bpeace works, security and violence disproportionately affect women. Fast Runner Dalia, https://vimeo.com/395988363 in this video, is the founder of a printing business in El Salvador. She provides safe transportation home for female employees who work overtime. But this proved costly. Bpeace Skillanthropists worked with Dalia to improve production processes, enabling the business to better plan production, anticipate workflow and decrease the need for overtime.

Today Dalia’s business enjoys lower costs, happier and safer employees, and increased revenue.

4.    Teach Fast Runners especially women how to find and use their voice

One of our Skillanthropists uses a tool called Conversational Intelligence (“C-IQ”)®. It is a way individuals and organizations can have the kinds of healthy conversations that create trust which in turn opens up the space to feel safe to take risks, co-create and innovate.

All individuals can benefit from learning how to have these kinds of conversations. Especially in family-owned businesses, where perceptions of the appropriate roles and responsibilities often fall along gender lines, being able to raise questions and challenge these assumptions is critical.

One of the foundational tools in C-IQ is listening to connect. Most of us listen to judge, evaluate, criticize or respond. Listening to connect is about being present and listening in a way that allows you to understand or “stand under” someone else’s perception, without judgment. It is also about asking questions for which we don’t have answers. An example of this type of question in the stories above is “What does strategic partner mean to you? What would I be doing for you to see me that way?’ Another one is “What does success look like?” And the question that always leads to co-creation and innovation begins with two simple words, “What if.”  What if we could end violence, what’s the first thing we might do?

What’s our impact:

Bpeace’s laser focus on women grounds our work and drives the success of the proven and promising job creators who are stabilizing their communities in some of the world’s most conflict-affected countries.

We can document the impact. Small businesses that work with Bpeace Skillanthropists over-perform their local economies—averaging 15% job growth and 15% revenue growth even in countries where the GDP growth is less than 3%.

 

 

 

Mossarat Qadeem Moderator

Angela, what an excellent illustration of the Bpeace model. This is what we need in every conflict ridden and post conflict country. 15% job growth and 15% revenue growth in countries where the GDP growth is less than 3% is ideal and every country would like to adopt this model.

 Bpeace has worked in Afghanistan as well. It will be great if you share how did Bpeace clarify the structural ambiguity that holds women back in a conservative society like Afghanistan. 

 

Visaka Dharmadasa

Countries which are coming out of conflict  or in transition opens windows of opportunities for women to take the lead in many sectors that they were not before and economy plays a major role in this aspect. Women due to the dire necessity learn skills which were traditionally reserved for men. Once the women are in these positions they do perform very well. Therefore it is very important that the post conflict rebuilding plans include these realities and safeguard the positions that women have stepped in to. It is also very necessary to include  women in post conflict economic decision making so that not only the traditional economic avenues are explore but also the new and emerging markets and opportunities are are captured .

Klara Backman

Dear all,

I would like to share some learnings from The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation. We work in partnership with over 150 women’s rights organisations in 20 countries affected by conflict. In 2019 we interviewed 91 women peacebuilders and women human rights defenders about their peacebuilding work and views on the successes and shortcomings of the WPS agenda, resulting in the report A Right Not A Gift – Women Building Feminist Peace.  

A great deal of the findings from these interviews concerned economic rights and how women are affected by the political economy of conflict. Not only regarding post-conflict recovery, but that the economic dimension of women’s experience of conflict is largely overlooked in many WPS conversations. Corruption and women’s housing, land and property rights stands out as areas that need a great deal more of attention from the international community. Here is a summary of the findings and recommendations that stemmed from our conversations with women peacebuilders in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Iraq, Syria and Ukraine:

• The lack of women’s economic power coupled with corruption is an underlying challenge to women’s protection from violence, inclusion in decision-making, political participation, and participation in building and sustaining peace at large.

• The economy is weaponised in conflicts, for example in withholding social benefits for certain groups and shrinking the economic space for civil society. Economic migrants can also be used as a pressure force on their home country by denying them protection status, making them vulnerable in their political choices and their security.

• Invisible economic violence against women in conflict, such as the feminisation of poverty and exclusion from the labour market exacerbates women’s poverty, marginalises women from the public sphere, and excludes them from influencing economic policy. Gender-blind economic recovery processes increase women’s poverty through inadequate access for women to land, property and relevant infrastructure.

• Women waiving their housing, land and property rights to male family members is a traditional expectation across the study contexts. Women’s lack of access to their HLP rights also intersects with financial, security, and corruption constraints.

• HLP rights can have a direct impact on local democracy-building in conflict contexts when forced displacement is used to create demographic changes in a way that disrupts the local power balance to serve actors involved in the conflict.

• In frozen conflicts, focus on economic development and democratic reform as an area for win-win solutions to build common ground.

Recommendations:

• Women should be meaningfully included in economic processes, including economic reform and recovery plans. Facilitate spaces for women where they can develop their own economic reform visions and recommendations.

• Donors’ partnerships with local governments on infrastructure reconstruction should have meaningful inclusion of women and women’s labour in rural areas as a as a requirement to addressing control over resources.

• Women’s housing, land and property rights need to be explicit in the WPS agenda as a structural discrimination and exclusion factor against women, which is heightened in conflict contexts and hindering women’s protection.

• Strengthen women’s competence around their housing, land and property rights and how they intersect with their economic and human rights.

• Institutions supporting women’s economic activities should offer targeted support to women agricultural engineers and farmers as a strategic entry point for normative and economic transformation.

• The international community’s funding to states for service delivery should be conditional to locally identified needs for service delivery, where women’s needs and priorities are directly investigated.

• The international community must demand and incentivise statistics on women across all sectors.

• Women’s economic empowerment efforts should not only include short-term trainings. Efforts must be directed also at normative changes in society that can create long-term transformation.

• Women should be supported to organise in trade unions, where applicable, as an additional space for organising and influencing women’s economic rights.

• The full implementation of the WPS agenda is systematically hindered by budget limitations. At the same time, women are largely excluded from economic decision-making. Therefore, we propose a UNSCR resolution on women’s economic rights, leadership and participation. This is of great importance to address the underlying challenge to the full implementation of the WPS agenda.

Danning Wang

1. how do women prioritise for economic reconstruction? 

In the Chinese case, the central government called the revitalization of the "informal economy" as a quick way to increase employment as well as to recover the city life. General understanding of the "informal economy" as street vendors and food stands is managed largely by women in urban areas and many of them are from the low income families or the migrants. In order to run this part of the urban economy especially in a friendly way, the city governments should be gender sensitive in prioritizing women's rights in license applicaition process. By giving women right and having their names listed as the small business owners can empower women in this section of the economic reconstruction. 

2. what are the differences between women's perspective and the current state and the international models on post-conflict?  

In general, at the stage of design the state and the international models on post-conflict reconstruction rarely considered the gender perspective. However, from the gender and work perspective, especially in the service industry as well as the informal economy, women's employment are high percentage wide. In the case of Hong Kong, and international financial center where high percentage of women are hired in the financial section, the post-conflict recovery is a gender sensitive issue. Especially when many schools experienced the quaranteen period,with the domestic helpers' assistant and the availability of working at home allowed female employees keep their full paid positions and regular performance at work. The work life balance and protection of female employees' right should be a big concern. 

3. Any good examples in increasing women's participation in economy and economic decision making process? what worked what did not? 

After the covid-19 medical crisis, online services are more developed and well accepted by the business and educaition worlds. Working at home allowed women to have more flexible schedule which is an unexpected advantage for work and life balance. With the elaborate online services, women's domestic burden was also sharply reduced by home delivery and online shopping. In China, during the crisis, big and successful companies such as taobao, wangyi, jingdong, etc, became more successful and their business models are now available for more new businesses to learn. Female customers of these businesses benefit from their services. All of these contributed to China's successful fighting with the virus and keep life on going, while at the same time maintain gender sensitive and women friendly working policies. 

4. how to ensure the rapid economic recovery increase women's economic opportunities? what obstacles we met and what specific measures worked? 

In the Chinese case, especially in the case of revitalizing informal economy, recognizing female street venders, food stand owners, and business owners' right is especially important. Most of the informal economy that the central government called will happen in the small cities and be family business, how to protect women's right and increase their status at home became an important issue. Local government should pay extra attention in registering these small businesses by allowing women became the business owners or at least share it with their male family members. This will give women tremendous power at home in economic decision making process and empower women at home and protect their rights. In the case of online business running, both men and women can contribute to the business world and working at home via internet gave women more opportunities to reach the life work balance. This is extremely important for female employees. 

5. What was the impact? What happened that was the difference? 

In the quick economic recovery, at least from the China and Hong Kong SAR experiences, we could see that both men and women contributed to the economic recovery and they all performed equally excel in the process. 

6. was there any particular outside support that was particularly important? 

Yes, the city governments' support in registering female business right in the license application process is extremely important. This determined women's right in running the informal economy. Business owners, employers' gender sensitive policies in the time of online working is extremely important because it gave female employees equal opportunities in full participating work and at the same time taking care of families with their husbands. Both male and female employees' domestic responsibilities should be emphasized and they are not just women's work. In the case of school shut-down, all school-aged children need to receive proper supervising at home and proper care from both father and mother. The domestic responsibilities should be carried out by both men and women.

7. how could men engage? what worked?

In the chinese case, the city of Beijing required both mom and dad take turns in staying at home with their school-aged children when the schools were shut down. For the first half of 2020, most school days were organized by the online classes and the students need to go to the online classes for studying. Parental supervision is the key and necessity. In order to help various age school kids to adjust the new schedule and to deal with the anxiety and stress, expecially those who need to prepare their entrance examinations for college and high school, parents are the key figures in working with children and their schools. Father's involvement is important and fathers need to work with moms and children in handling the children's education which in many cases are big challenges for men. 

8. how can new technology contribute to women's empowerment? 

By now, we can hardly imagine the fight with covid-19 and the economic recovery without the new technology. It was also because of the wide availability of the new technology that china can successfully manage its domestic econmimc recovery and at the same time supporting the other countries in fighting with the virus. Smart phone, AI, online services, internet services, big data, and wifi services all enabled chinese government and chinese families in fighting with the virus in a gender nutural, women friendly, and gender sensitive maner. It was truly a successful story that can be learned from China's quick development in science and technology. 

9. how can we ensure the need and views of the most marginalized groups can be taken care of? 

Econonomic inequality would be the biggest problem in ensuring the most marginalized groups' right being protected and taken care of. Being able to have the access of the technology is so critical in the crisis management period. If the marginalized groups cannot have the economic power to have these technologies, they should at least have the access to community services. In the chinese case, community services were so effectively organized that everyone was having the access to medical checks, supplies, and knowledge. this is the key issue. virus is color blind, LGBT blind, and handicap blind. To make sure no one left was also a successfule Chinese experience. 

10. what role can data play in empowering women in economic recorvery? 

Big data should be gender sensitive. Both men and women mattered. If women's business right, business ownership, and property right can not be reflected in big data, something is wrong. Women mattered in the whole process from fighting the covid-19 to economic recovery. big data should always be gender sensitive and once there is any gender inequality issue showed in big data, the government, the ngos and the communities should be able to fix those problems.    

MARTA BENAVIDES

salud .. I have been reading the sharing.. I see that there are very few comments from women who were involved in the coalition which created the process and worked to get Res 1325 ... I am very concerned that it is clear to me that the work to really integrate the spirit and purpose of the resolution has not been successful.. each of the questions given to us is key to see this.. it is not they are not important, it is that if we pay attention to the state of the world previous to the pandemic, and during it, is quite clear that the implementation, that is to integrate it into all aspects of life from the family, local, national, regional and global are still very poor, as we see from all reports that women are in the majority of the 4 billion 800,000 peoples out of the 7 billion 800,000 total who own together what all the billionaires in the world own, today.. this is the world we must see to weight in the answer to all the questions.. the pandemic is not the culprit.. but it comes to show not only not having fullfilled what we intended as per 1325, but even what had been gained will be lost.. that is the case of El Salvador and the majority of countries in the LAC region.. going back to social dev of the 70's or 80´s  and entering to a time where FAO states that as a result of the COVID 19 at least 14 million peoples of Central America and the Caribbean will be facing severe hunger and 60 million continentally will join the number of those living in poverty.. it will take LONG TO RECUPERATE.. the situation is worse as a result of the terrible indepness that under the guise of taking care (save they actually say) rhe peoples adminstration of govts have taken loans - because they understood that lots of money would be available, if they were able to move supported by the laws of exceotion that allows to move in disregard to the real needs and institutional norms, so constitutional and human rights are suspended,.. El Salvador´s peoples will have to pay our of any dolar produced, .95 to pay such debt .. leaving 5 cts to care for peoples and planet.. . in this scenario as it has been, women are the ones that loose the most .. so .. how else should . must anyone like me, answer the question? there has not been adequate post conflict reconciliation nor reconstruction, and post coronavirus will not allow it either .. .. unless we revamp and instead of BUILD BACK BETTER , we Build Different.. as it must to be about the Spirit and commiment as the 1325 call 

I am concernded that in the various webminars during this time of COVID19.. this concerns have not been addressed as needed... just not going back to normal. exactly, but to a refurbish normal.. not the different deep transformative processess that the coronavirus has shown each person and nation and the world urgently need,   -- marta benavides . el salvador 

Carol Infanti

Role of women in post-conflict economic decision making   

“Gender equality is critical to the development of peace of every nation”. “There is no tool for development more effective than the empowerment of women”.  Kofi Annan (August2018)                                                                                                                                       

I am writing on behalf of Soroptimist International Great Britain and Ireland (SIGBI) which has Special Status with United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). This enables Soroptimists to use their voice at UN meetings and of particular importance is the annual Commission for the Status of Women.

Within SIGBI, there are Soroptimist clubs in 20 countries in the UK, Asia, Malta and the Caribbean. This reflects a diversity of countries, races and cultures, as well as a range of communities from urban, semi urban to rural.  As volunteers, our members work with their communities, support, them and advocate for them.

SIGBI is not an organisation which specialises in the area of post conflict, however as an organisation our members have experience of working with women and girls in many different countries and situations. Our mission and vision are to transform the lives of women and girls, from local to global, and in so doing we align our work to the Agenda 2030 and the SDGs.

Economic reconstruction

Post-conflict peacebuilding processes present major opportunities for advancing women’s rights and gender equality particularly with respect to education, employment, economic empowerment, political representation and rights to land, property and inheritance.

Although not in a post conflict area the Meru Women’s Garden Project (MWGP) in Kenya provides an example of how women can be leaders in regenerating their community. For three years (2017 – 2019) SIGBI supported the MWGP. This woman lead initiative was designed by the Women of Meru. It was developed to create sustainable gardening techniques and provide training for women to become mentors and pioneers of agricultural sustainability within the community. The project also provided education for the girls on their rights, empowering them to stand up to damaging cultural practices like Female Genital Mutilation.

The project was run in conjunction with CIFORD Kenya, a community-based organisation. This was crucial to its success as was the involvement of the elders and men of the community. Young men were invited to attend a seminar on empowerment, designed to encourage them to grow as responsible adults. This was also seen as a success; it was well attended despite men/boys thinking that seminars are for girls and women. 

Women should not be seen as passive recipients; this fails to recognise their contributions and contributes to their marginalisation.

By providing economic opportunities and education to women, girls and men, the MWGP will achieve long term change by strengthening entire communities; improving the lives and opportunities for women and generations to come.

Women’s perspective

Soroptimist International (SI) Chennai, India has been working in an impoverished locality where a lack of education and job skills leads to unemployment and dependence on others, resulting in loss of self-esteem and abuse.

Chennai is one of the largest industrial and commercial cities in India, which contributes to its economic stature. However, with large populous urban cities, comes the slums. More often than not, the impoverished are found living in the slums of the cities they are connected to. Many people move to the city in hopes of finding jobs; however, when they don’t, they have trouble surviving and may ultimately end up in the slums of the city. Slums develop from rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, high unemployment, poverty, informal economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters and conflicts. Projects such as the vocational training centre set up by the Soroptimists shows the importance of listening to, working with and gaining the trust of the local women helps them make decisions about their future and help them move out of the slums.

The Soroptimist club set up an after-school club and sponsorship programme for children. As a result of this, the women of the area approached the club and appealed to them to help develop an income generation scheme. Members spent time with the women finding out what sort of income generation scheme they wanted. After discussion with the women, it was decided that starting a vocational training program would be a good way of helping the women become economically independent. The club sought the help of a Non-Government Organisation (NGO), Shine Trust which was operating in the area. Training alone was insufficient to improve the circumstances of the women therefore wholesalers were approached, who agreed to source out some of their basic stitching jobs to the women providing longer term employment and enriching the community.

Another example is The Sangamith Centre in Sri Lanka (built between 2006 and 2009), the result of work by Soroptimist International (SI) Ormskirk, SI Bootle and District and SI Lancashire. In 2009, the 26 years of civil war in Sri Lanka, came to an end. Many women in the war-affected regions have had to  deal with multiple long-term impacts of the violent conflict such as injuries; loss of lives, property, income sources and livelihood activities; multiple displacements; and trauma, amongst other impacts, which have placed many households in a precarious situation when trying to rebuild their lives.

Sri Lanka was one of the countries struck by the tsunami resulting from the Indian Ocean earthquake on December 26, 2004. On January 3, 2005, Sri Lankan authorities reported 30,000+ confirmed deaths. After years of civil war in the county and natural disaster it could be argued that the devastation following the tsunami cannot be understated and the community needed to rebuild itself. Here we see women taking on key roles.

The centre provides a meeting place for the community. There are clinics and health workshops, educational classes, a lending library and accommodation for remote schools on educational trips. The Soroptimists wanted the women in the community to play a bigger part in the community; the Sangamith Women’s Society was formed. The day to day running of the centre is shared by the Women’s Society and the Council of the Temple.

Time for change

Now is the time to consider what we have learnt from the Covid 19 Pandemic, how men and women react and deal with crisis and how women can, more effectively, be engaged in decision making going forward.  We must look to do things differently. It is an opportunity to be more inclusive and bring women to the forefront, include them in policy and decision making at all levels in society.

We have seen that women leaders are highly represented in countries managing the Corona crisis well including; Angela Merkel in Germany, Jacinda Ardern in New Zealand, Mette Frederiksen in Denmark and Silveira Jacobs Prime Minister of Sint Maarten among others.  There is a view that resilience, pragmatism, benevolence, trust, mutual aid and humility are common features of the success of these women leaders.  Greater involvement of women results in a broader perspective on the crisis, and paves the way for the deployment of richer and more complete solutions than if they had been imagined by a homogeneous group. We know that women tend to work collaboratively and engage everyone, but what’s equally important is support and trust; for women and men to work together. If people are invested in the decision making, the initiative (whether it be running a project, company or government) is more likely to succeed.

We need to encourage the visibility of women leaders; we need more female role models.

“No country can ever truly flourish if it stifles the potential of its women and deprives itself of half of its citizens” Michelle Obama.

 

Carol Infanti

Assistant Programme Director

Soroptimist International Great Britain and Ireland

 

Manal Malaeb

مرحباً للجميع ولهي فرصة جميلة ومفيدة مشاركة الآراء والاستفادة من الخبرات فيما بيننا.

 

تحقق لي وانطلاقاً من تجربتي في العمل الاجتماعي والتطوع بأكثر من جمعية نسائية وجمعيات تعنى بدور المرأة وخاصة في موطني لبنان. فالنساء تلعب دور ريادي اساسي الى جانب شريكها الرجل في صنع القرار الاقتصادي ، حيث للنساء في زيادة دخل الاسرة ان من خلال وظيفتها او خاصة ، من خلال طريقة ادارة مصروف منزلها والتخطيط مع افراد العائلة للوصول بالوضع الاقتصادي المشترك للعائلة الى بر الامان.

 

 

ومن هنا نرى أهمية الدور أن كانت ذات خبرة اكاديمية وحاصلة على شهادات تعليمة وان كانت تمتلك مهارات حياتية تواصلية أو مهارات تقنية (وهنا نتكلم عن نساء الريف والقرى البعيدة) كصناعة المونة والحرفيات والخزف أيضًا إلى مهارات تسويقية بسيطة تستطيع من خلال القيام ب امتلاك مردود مالي يرفع دخل الاسرة وينعكس ايجابياً الى وضعها الاقتصادي.

 

ولا شك أن الجمعيات وبعض المؤسسات العامة لعبت دورًا في رفع مستوى نظرة المرأة إلى أنها ومعرفتها بقدراتها الذاتية التي تنعكس بوجه خاص على حياتها الشخصية والعائلية وبشكل عام على بناء الاقتصاد بوجه عام.

 

ولعل تستفيد من البيانات البيئية والمحيط كوجود مواد أولية لصنع المنتجات وطريقة البحث عن مصادر محلية وكذلك لم يتم تسويقها بشكل فردي أو عبر جمعيات ومراكز تجارية عبر عبر التكنولوجيا الحديثة ومواقع التواصل الاجتماعي قد تكون ساهم بشكل أو باخر في تطوير وانفتاح اقتصادي ولو بشكل طفيف وخاصة في الازمات.

 

هذه التجارب لا يمكن ان نقول انها نجحت 100 ٪ في كافة المناطق بنسبة واحدة بل هناك تفاوت في بالنسبة للمردود الاقتصادي أو الاجتماعي وخاصة هناك تنوع بالأزمات وتاريخها وهذا ما عزز ضرورة العمل على وضع رؤية شاملة كافة القطاعات الاقتصادية والعمل بيد دون تفرقة او تمييز بين النساء والرجال في قطاعات العمل ، كما هناك أهمية للعمل على اكتساب مهارات حياتية وعملية بالتوازي مع اكتساب شهادات اكاديمية والعمل على ما يمكن تسميته محو امية (مهارات أساسية في الحياة) كما محو الامية (التعليمية).

 

وانطلاقاً من هذه الرؤية ممكن وضع استراتيجية مستقبلية لإدارة الازمات وخاصة الاقتصادية لتفادي الوقع في مطبات اجتماعية انعكاسها سلبي على المجتمعات.

 

Rina Kedem

Dear Mossarat, still aspiring to answer some of the questions asked in this forum which you posed.

I found that successful case studies have had the most influence on integrating women in economic decision making. Changing existing  systems and lack of gender sensitive approaches through inspiring others is very impactful.

Meaning- the small, local cross border, multicultural initiatives we have launched through community leadership and participation, have had a strong impact on changing the dominate discourse about the role of women in peacebuilding and economic leadership by showcasing what can be achieved when women lead and collaborate. 

People, funders and agencies ask us often what are our lessons learned and success factors, and then we explain  how the fact that women lead these initiatives and processes have contributed to their implementation, and sustainability.  

I find that intriguing other people and creating projects that stand out, is a healthy and creative way, in which we create the "new world" we want to see with women led initiatives, peace building and economic development.

Criticizing the existing models, political and social structures is for sure needed as well and we have a lot of work to do... Nevertheless many people need support in "seeing" and visioning  the other possibilities and alternatives. I enjoy investing time in bringing those to life, and am grateful to be part of this WPS movement. 

John Ede

Gender roles differ so also impact of any situation on different gender affiliation.

There is the need to be deliberate and I strategically include women in the key decision making process. Especially giving that some countries in the global south still ascribe certain roles tomen more than women and it's roots is from the orthodox ancient traditional system some of which exist today.

Political leaders have made verbal commitments during campaign to gather votesabout gender inclusion but after getting into office is not implemented.

I would recommend that traditional rulers in Nigeria for instance open up their decision making processes to women participation. National government should allocate certain number of seats in their cabinet and in key offices as commitment to women led decision making processes.

In developing and designing programs by relevant stakeholders, it should be mandatory to allocate certain number of key seats to women.

Strengthen the capacity of women for leadership roles by training women to prepare to take up leadership in decisions making at community, LGA, State and federal levels.

Adeze Ojukwu

   

Hello all,

I commend all the various contributions on how to ensure that women can be part of decision-making processes at various levels of governance in society.

COVID-19 has exposed the need to support women to participate more in decision-making processes.

 Most women in various communities bear   disproportionately, higher burden, of care- giving in homes and hospitals.

In Nigeria, women are traditionally given the back seat in public offices, especially in conflict and post-conflict situations.

Cheerily, education has helped many women to attain positions of authority, particularly in various professions and business.

But many women are still denied access to functional education,  economic opportunities and skill acquisition, due to forced and early marriage.

Efforts to address this infringement through legislative processes, have been severally scuttled by the legislators.

So good governance is central to this discussion and all the aspirations for women to adorn prominent positions in society.

Also the political arena is still very murky, hence most women often avoid political participation, due to threats and violence.

Media should be sensitized to support women empowerment programmes especially at community levels, scaling up to national levels.

In my country there is increasing advocacy for girl-child education and enforcement of laws protecting women and girls from gender based discriminatory practices and violence.

This is due to surging cases of rape and sexual violence against females. Without safe places, women will be driven to the back stage, due to these unrelenting abuses and life threatening conditions both in the family settings and public places.

I believe that financial empowerment is also very important for women to thrive better in patriarchal societies. Governments need to establish special structures to create funding opportunities for women, widows and girls to engage in economic activities especially at local levels.

This will enable them to better equipped and financially  to occupy leadership positions.

 

Religious and traditional rulers have strong roles to play in order to change negative views about women in leadership roles in my society.

Tracking the progress of these initiatives is also important.

Hence women groups can network more and  creatively set up monitoring techniques, by synergizing with relevant agencies, media and civil society groups, so that more women can take up more roles in decision-making processes.

The expected change can be engendered through  concerted multisectorial actions and pressure from the media, civil societies, international organizations and political movements. 

The desirable change, may take time, but it  will come, as society embraces the innovative advancements in technology, education and good governance.

Thank you for your attention.