What are the critical components and specific entry points for mainstreaming?

Based on your responses and a review of some existing mainstreaming tools, we have identified a number of components or specific entry points that need to be addressed to risk-inform the development agenda (Please refer to slide 10 on this presentation which provides an initial outline of key features).  

a)    What components/entry points do you think are most critical? 

b)    Have we missed any?

What guidance is needed to help practitioners apply the tool?

In addition to describing the key entry points or components for mainstreaming (i.e. what?), we are considering outlining concrete steps that could be taken (i.e. how?).  These steps need to be sufficiently generic to be applicable to different contexts, levels and sectors, but specific enough to help the user implement them.

a)    Do you feel that such guidance is useful, and if yes, what are the key steps that need to be considered?

b)    How can we ensure the steps are concrete, yet relevant across a wide spectrum of contexts, levels and sectors? 

25 Apr 2016 - 13 May 2016

Comments (13)

Jalil Ur Rehman
Jalil Ur Rehman

What components/entry points do you think are most critical? 

After reviwing the previous comments summary  I would suggest followings as the most critical components;

  • Legislation at national to Gross root level
  • Political will
  • Budget allocation
  • Capacity  development
  • Participarory Planning and implementation
  • Result Based Management
  • M&E

Have we missed any?

While working on mainstreaming community participation is necessary as the general public is  the end users of all the good results. secondly the scientific research should be an integral part of maintreaming.

Akhteruzzaman Sano
Akhteruzzaman Sano

Dear Angelika,  you may have the presentation from our the workshop at KL organized by IFRC and UNDP (You) on Law and DRR.  I am replying the same experiences as it a successful case in mainstreaming perspectives.

1)    What are the critical components and specific entry points for mainstreaming?

a)    What components/entry points do you think are most critical?

- in my experience, the critical entry points of mainstreaming starts at household levels - where household members have their defined roles and responsibilities, ensures balanced particiation and their is accountability review mechanism. The same needs to practices community levels - with defined roles & responsbilities. The "DEFINED ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES"  open the opporunity for demonstratting accountability and transparency. The extent of success and failure come based on the defined roles & responsibilities.

b)    Have we missed any?

The  policy framework need to be supported by legal /institutional approach . It is always missing. Such missing makes the initiative as the "event" and reduce the chances to let it go as the "process".


2)    What guidance is needed to help practitioners apply the tool?

a)    Do you feel that such guidance is useful, and if yes, what are the key steps that need to be considered?

If the guidance is developed following the clear institutional policy  mandated by legal framework, the tools  ensure that there is no overlapping of any roles of the community or at institution levels. 

Accountability and transparency cannot expect if the roles and responsbilites are not defined clearly, empowered accordingly and supported with adequate resources (all forms of resources).

b)    How can we ensure the steps are concrete, yet relevant across a wide spectrum of contexts, levels and sectors?

Once the policy supports the guidance and tools to address the issues then we can ensure the esteps are concrete. The guidances/manuals are developed following  by policy framework under the legal umbrella, then there will be no chance to miss something. In case something get lost, it will be discovered immidiately and updated, recognized by all parties ...

Dr. Abdulghany Mohamed
Dr. Abdulghany Mohamed

Dear Moderators and participants,

Thanks for your contributions.

I wish to suggest  the following:

(a) that on Slide 4 (Audience) we also include inter-governmental bodies such regional organizations (e.g., East African Community, ASEAN, MERCOSUR), etc, regional development banks (e.g., African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, etc.). It is crucial that the UNDP work with and support these and other regional organizations in mainstreaming the integration of DRR & CCA.

(b) On Slide 7 (Components....) under "networks and partnerships" we consider that idea that the proposed framework would help enlist the support of regional and global organizations (e.g., regional UN Economic Commissions, the World Bank, etc) so as to "overcome silo approaches at the regional and global level" (cf. Slide 2). I believe that it would be a critical success factor if regional and global bodies support/complement UNDP efforts in the subject endeavour as it will help minimize the often conflicting/competitive demands/advice that national/local level policymakers and practitioners have to attend to/conted with/synthesize. 

Looking forward to your reactions and input.


Abdulghany Mohamed, Phd


27-04-2016 [Paris]



Great day! We have moved to stage 2- Everybody feel happy with stage 1- If it Is the number that counts, Hopefully, we have even more followers (150 practitioners are not enough (?) (!) to cover the needs of 20% of risk zones in the world. I think, newcomers can join with new ideas, new designs and breakthrough projects. Don't you think so?

1- Introduction:

All what have been said is very relevant to making things happen in the real world, so that nobody feels cheated. Everybody can feel CCA or DRR is their owns. We should consider also, that the environment belongs to people, while the profit is the business owner interests. between these 2 kind of stakeholders, there should be a trade-off so everybody can win)

2- Technology and project management


The limited number of comments I read today, are great. Firstly, they are pointed out form the opening of session 2 (outline of tools) the importance of the society (and not economy or ecology).

2.1. Case study:

Example, of a technology, which I have developed during several years since 2005 (and which is still underestimated is the humanitarian drone. There are drones for all circumstances, but no drone  for humanitarian action. 

Drone in Humanitarian action, has several advantages- to save the life of humanitarian workers – combine 2 operations in one- for example the need to provide assistance when needed and the security and the police mission that UN is often sending in case of catastrophic events. 

2.2. In principle, climate change is a global package of solutions and not piecemeal activities, where one adds in partial elements of the DRR or CCA activities, in a sum-up.

For example, activities for male, activities for female, activities or children, activities, for old people, young people, pregnant women, disabled person...Etc.

2.3. Tooling questions:

- The question is how do you leverage at the same time the class structure, which is based on cultural values of ancestors, the risk reduction strategies, and the tools. Particularly, when UNSECGEN ban Ki-moon rightly said climate change and post 2015 SDGs are the 2 different sides of the same reality. “Development that works for all”:...leaving no one behind, descent work for all.

- One needs to tackle at the same time both elements of climate change and sustainable development. Depending of the priorities (either Post 2015 SDG or Climate change) the tool is likely to be different.

- How do you select the right tool?

- Who has the ownership for the selection?

In some countries like Nepal, the social class structure is prone to be a traditional one, where often it is the male and the elderly people who have the power.

3. Conclusion and recommendations

3.1. Conclusion:

Anyway, this simple case is showing that DRR and CCA is a complex issue and can be found in all UN member states with different degrees with settings and solving issues. Not paying attention to what the 1rst commentators on the stage 2 said is likely to jeopardize development and progress. Tools could be just a green wash and business as usual (!)

We should look at the social aspect of CCA+ DRR and we look in sustainable development if we can integrate more or less elements of the economy (finance,...) or the ecology (water, soil, air…), so the project are people system and organization oriented.

3.2. Recommendations

Recommendation 1:

The process is practical based on technologies that are real tool for action for the grass root organization that are the users. A clear cut between operators and users of tools.

Recommendation 2:

Actually, my best vision of DRR and CCA goes in the direction of existing UN organization based on Risk sharing society and Integration. When 175 countries have signed CC outcome, one should think also to rejuvenate and reactivate UN organization like ICDO (International Civilian Defense Organization). In such a way, people, system and organization have a real value and a real shares in DRR and CCA (if you want transferring the ownership from board of organization to the grass root organizations is in principle, a resiliency process and a project management process.

Have a nice reading any feed-backs are welcome for deeper understanding and thank you to moderators for the new challenges.



Saripalli Suryanarayana
Saripalli Suryanarayana
The impending or possible disaster outlined or envisized is increase in heat,reduction in rain and consequently the problems with water.

What we call in general terms the weathering phenomena of soils and rocks exposed to rain and heat also can have an effect in dry spells,when the are either below or above the silts layers,which some times can also be black cotton soils.

Silts and these soils are dangerous and they reflect the sunshine back,either deflected or absorbed.

So are we also considering a possible disaster earth quake of moderate intensity where it rains more or it do not at all rain,or at places where the aquifers run underneath.
Saripalli Suryanarayana
Saripalli Suryanarayana

I have written a novel NIRVANA 2020,which is free and pasted on my page, scribd.com/doc/284539534/9202020 ….. NIRVANA 2020. Shining climate with water vapor our future.The link is added it is based on climate assumptions.In that food habits changes based on productivity of saline water trees is also given in one chapter.While the novel may not be a sucess it is free for all.

Teamworks System Administration
Teamworks System Administration

Posted on behalf of P. C. Joshi, Department of Anthropology,  University of Delhi, Delhi


Dear Moderator,

My comments are as under:

What are the critical components and specific entry points for mainstreaming?


The most critical component for mainstreaming DRR and CCA would be the community, the actual theatre for most of the activities. Being at the receiving end of all the adverse consequences of climate change and disaster events, the community is ultimately required to be made more resilient and adaptive to the changes.  The community therefore needs to be made the unit for all the positive action pertaining to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. For example, the lowest community level organization is called Gram Sabha in India, Village Council in Pakistan, Barangay in Philippines, Dusun in Indonesia and Commune in Vietnam.  Since, the effects of climate change and disaster events are eventually felt at the level of community, the mitigating actions should logically emanate from there. 


What guidance is needed to help practitioners apply the tool?


The approach towards community involvement in principle should be participatory, democratic, decentralized and bottom-up which alone will ensure that it is going to be effective, relevant and sustainable. It should further adhere to a mix of indigenous and external scientific-technical skills and knowledge for it to be durable and locally relevant.  Therefore, rather than coming up with a new idea or technology, howsoever great it may be, an ethnographically informed assessment of the ground situation and existing knowledge and technologies should be the starting point which would truly built upon the long term experience and wisdom of the lay people. Harnessing of the community level knowledge, innovations and enthusiasm should therefore become the driving force for our action.





P. C. Joshi

Department of Anthropology,

University of Delhi, Delhi.

Teamworks System Administration
Teamworks System Administration

Posted on Behalf of Moortaza Jiwanji and Manoa Malani, UNDP Fiji


I would like to submit a concrete example from Fiji of how we are working to operationalise some of the entry-points that you have laid out in the presentation.  This is based on experiences of working in partnership with local government through the UNDP Pacific Risk Resilience Programme (PRRP):


Leadership: The Commissioner for the Western division in Fiji, Mr. Manasa Tagicakibau, is pioneering a ‘risk informed’ approach to development and planning at sub national level.  PRRP is using the ‘from within’ approach to mainstream risk into the existing Integrated Rural Development Framework (IRDF) process.  The Commissioner’s long term goal is to apply this framework to integrated development in a risk-informed way. This example illustrates the importance of strong leadership and commitment to support mainstreaming into existing development planning processes; that is connected from national through to community levels but weaves in risk as an integral element.


Advocacy: The main advocacy message is ‘not to address DRR-CCA in silos’. The proposed approach by Commissioner Western will showcase to stakeholders a proposed integrated way of providing risk informed decisions in good times as well as disaster times.  We are working with him and his team to strengthen the building blocks of – people, mechanisms and processes – to help see this integrated approach through. His approach in the Western Division is now being adopted in the Northern division later this year.  Their aspiration is that this approach is then taken even at the national level. We are finding that advocacy is an essential ingredient to promote more sustained change in how development and risk are approached – not as separate parallel processes, but together – in other words “risk informed development.”


Capacity: The Commissioners in the North and the West now have full-time Government staff dedicated to DRR and CCA within their teams. Through these posts we will be collaborating with local government to integrate (weave in) DRR CCA within various development sectors, provincial, district and community level plans as well as their Annual Divisional Business Plan. We are finding that by having permanent capacity for risk within government development at all levels, that government can be responsive to new opportunities, changing needs (before, during and after disasters) and provide “in-house” and support for more resilient approaches,


Partnerships: local government is working in close partnership with UNDP and an INGO partner (Live and Learn Environmental Education) to jointly test approaches to mainstreaming risk into the sub-national development planning process.  Our experience is showing that civil society have an important role to play in risk informed development given their intimate understanding of local needs and priorities.  We are also brokering partnerships between the local government and private sector (for example seedbanks), and these are showing to support resilience during disaster times (e.g. Cyclone Winston).


Vinaka Vakalevu,

Moortaza Jiwanji and Manoa Malani


06-05-2016 [Paris]


Thank you regarding my participation in the 2nd stage of the process- online tools. As usual, I think the participants are high calibers and experts or knowledgeable persons about the future of DRR and CCA. It is not the case for our website readers that need to dig and learn. I was happy to get insights in other works it is was less than an exchange and more about proactive feed-backs on the kind of future was want and transforming the UN objectives. My thinking -also feeling in the time scale, we cannot say everything about CCA and DRR. It is a huge topic. We need more time. Before ending with all the participants this 2nd round, I want to present my new tool- which is the map or mapping activities. It is a serious topic. Mapping like  eating is part of our existence and some we are making it in an unconscious way. For example, when you want to take a decision to make shopping at the end of the week. You need to realize you are planning or mapping your shopping activities - even if you do not think about the goals (strategy, activities and tasks). it made automatically. If not you would not be able to buy food at the grocery or the supermarket at the end of the week.

So, mapping like planning use Principle, methods and tools. It is aiming at reducing the gap between the internal organization and the organization environment. In such a way, you can reach your goal with a level of certainty; I have  browsed in the document attached (Microsoft power and a Pd f where I compare the Compass with the GPS and in the journey to the a final destination. Where the organization is set, where it is coming from, and where it is heading. It is not high-output management, but a way to use in a cost effective manner map for CCA and DRR.

Enjoy reading and again thanks to our colleagues at UNDP and Climate change for the hard task to moderate the exchanges.

Georges Radjou



Saripalli Suryanarayana
Saripalli Suryanarayana

As a ,citizen i agree with your points,spatial development,age entry of citizens and development parameters and finally the risk around is to be incorporated to save systematically the age group citizens.



My 2nd topic for the 2nd stage of the online consultation for CCA and DRR is about Age pyramid. It has been underestimated. Possibly, this age pyramid should be the fist stage of all CCA and DRR activities. The activities are for people, by people and with them -which is the formula for democratic institutions-, but also in terms of project management based on People, Systems and organizations. Risk based organizations should carry and important enough amount of analyzes es on the age pyramid. A good understanding for the age pyramid can reduce all future risk, while minimizing the costs. Pyramid age is a tool for anticipating future uncertainty and allocating the resources.

Example of France, after world war 2, the investment ended after the 30 golden years. We thought that there was enough investment in infrastructure because of over calibration of items for development in road, telecommunication, urbanism, transport, health service and so on. In such a way, it has happen that our expectation did not materialized. The expected critical mass for the initial infrastructures did not materialize, in such a way we are feeling a bit the pain today, But the underinvestment of the 21rst century in France is not critical, because if you look at the age pyramid, people from the baby boom are not going to leave for ever, in such a way, there will be massive loss in the population, which can represent a danger for the economy, but is is also, an opportunity as young people today could replace to elderly people from the pappy or mammy boom with ease (no future investment or whatever ever just based on the numerical activity of the critical mass of population dynamic after world war 2.

By analogy, Population dynamic play in a similar role with  cohorts in a school system. When looking at differential development and success factors. Policy makers and technical staffs of the education system ill pave the road for success of schoolchildren (the expected good result from the examination board or teachers) by not creating additional weaknesses that the inherent difference between individual that can be perceived as a risk in some school system (with specific program, project....), but in fact it is the opposite it is an opportunity, if masters are willing to cooperate, build bridges in the learning of curriculum activities and  build partnership. Flexible solution in the Age pyramid is always best than creating irrelevance to the promotion of individuals. Reducing the gap in learning are not going to create barres to learning of weak pupils. W know the learning processes can vary from the individuals and one need to match these differences with different learning strategies. Thus all children can learn and be successful at school. They can find a descent work and no one is left behind.  The process of economic success or failure is also based on the technical and policy makers and how workers strategies can integrate the population dynamic. 

Thank you again for moderation and participant thoughts.

Georges Radjou

Teamworks System Administration
Teamworks System Administration

Posted on behalf of Nagendra Biyani, Deputy Secretary Disaster Management, Revenue Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad, India

Dear Moderator, 

Some of the key entry points for the mainstreaming are:

  • Leadership : At all levels, especially in the Local Governance
  • Capacity Building: Where perceptions can be oriented towards mainstreaming
  • Legislation/Policies: The Government of India, Government Order to use 10% of centrally sponsored schemes for DRR, gives scope  mainstreaming DRR into development planning
  • Institutions:  To play key role in bring techniques, technology which could help in mainstreaming DRR CCA (Research, Technology)
  • Budgeting:  A very critical component. Proper provisions are to be made in the budget. The finance department to be oriented on DR CCA, so that they would ensure that the plans that are submitted to finance department approval has integrated DRR CCA in its planning document. Orientation could also help in allocating needed funds for DRR CCA.

You could also add Guidelines/ Codes in the entry point of Legislation, etc. ( Since National Flagship Program Guidelines are very critical entry points for Mainstreaming and same with the case of various engineering codes).

Concrete steps are very much needed under each step and delineation of the same will defiantly help the Practitioners.



Nagendra Biyani,

Deputy Secretary, Disaster Management,

Revenue Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh,

Hyderabad, India.

Teamworks System Administration
Teamworks System Administration

Posted on behalf of Sarat Das, Revenue Department (Disaster Management), Government of Tripura. Agartala.


Dear All,

Inputs on outline tool

Critical Components / entry points:

  1. For mainstreaming of DRR-CCA in development, there is a need of functional and dedicated setup at State and District level. As per the Disaster Management Act-2005, the Disaster Management set-up such as State and District Disaster Management Authorities have been set-up. But these are not fully functional due to lack of dedicated manpower and funding provision. Hence, the framework should indicate the provision of dedicated manpower and funding pattern for the disaster management setup for the local governments.
  2. For sustainable efforts on any development activities, there is a need of active consent and involvement of local planning and finance departments of the local government. Hence, the framework should focus on involvement of local planning and finance departments for mainstreaming of DRR-CCA into development.
  3. Government of India has taken an innovative initiative towards allocating 10% of Central Sponsored Schemes (CSSs) as Flexi-Funds for DRR. But the initiative is not being considered due to lack of specific directives and guidelines for each CSS. Hence, the Government India may develop scheme wise directives for the State Governments and take up regular follow up actions for their implementations.
  4. Training and Capacity Building of the Government key functionaries (bureaucrats and policy makers) is the important requirement for mainstreaming DRR-CCA in development. The framework should focus on thematic training programmes for the functionaries at regular intervals.
  5. Legalizing disaster safety concerns in development is also an important component to ensure the mainstreaming of DRR-CCA. The framework should emphasize the mandatory consideration of disaster safety norms and tools during designing and inception of any development projects/ programmes.
  6. The framework should focus on behavioral changes of communities and key functionaries towards mainstreaming of DRR-CCA in developments. Integrating disaster mitigation in daily activities may change the behavior towards DRR and leads towards mainstreaming with suo-moto actions. Continuous awareness generation, regular practicing disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, exploring traditional coping mechanism and dissemination etc., are some of the actions which may need to be considered.
  7. Integration of DRR-CCA curriculum in education system may develop the foundation of understanding the concept and mainstreaming in the education environment. The framework should focus on incorporation of relevant DRR-CCA subjects in academic and technical education curriculums in an appropriate manner.
  8. Safety audits is an opportunity towards mainstreaming DRR-CCA in development. Provision of safety audits on DRR-CCA in various development activities should be considered by the concerned authorities. Safety audit may be considered as an integral part of the monitoring and appraisal of the development programmes.
  9. Appropriate user friendly mobile and IT enabled applications on DRR-CCA may be embedded with the general users and key stakeholders towards getting early warnings, news, views, reports, updates, best practices, events etc. The applications should suit to the students, working folks, academicians and varied occupations.
  10. Need based DRR-CCA research and development activities should be an important component in the framework. Various allied academic, technical and research institutions should work on R&D and application of the best suited products for human development. 
  11. Appropriate financing towards DRR-CCA may be a vital component towards implementation of various activities and lead to sustainable. There are various need based development programmes for reducing disaster risks are not being taken up due to lack of finance. Sometimes, the investment from the local Government is not possible due to other direct development priorities and political commitments. Hence, the framework should focus on scope of financing for taking up DRR-CCA actions which may lead the mainstreaming.



Sarat Das,

Revenue Department (Disaster Management),

Government of Tripura. Agartala.